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[p. 36] used, moreover, to express our gratitude to all the skilful officers and brave men of the army and navy who achieved such decisive victories over the enemies of our country.

This memorial shaft speaks to us also of our manhood and national character. The rush of our heroes to the ranks, when they heard the first gun against Fort Sumter, proved—what? It proved, conclusively, that we had a New England, and a national character already formed in the souls of these patriots, lying silent and unseen till the country called for it; and, when it did call, it found these men to be intense Americans, intense New Englanders, intense Medfordites. Medford recognized them with one universal shout of approbation.

Have not these facts taught us about our manhood and our national character? We feel now, as this generation has never felt before, the vital force of patriotic principle, and the solemn obligation of patriotic duty. Do we not feel this new meaning of the word patriotism tingling from our central heart to every extremity? Our soldiers and sailors have taught us this, and are they not our permanent benefactors? They have brought to light this new nation in our midst.

Again, these memorial pillars testify to the power of our Constitution to bear the new and untried strain of a gigantic civil war. Our Constitution proved a safe compass on a stormy sea.

Furthermore, this column suggests to us our duties. It asks us to love our Union more and more every month, and to watch with eagle eyes the doings of its enemies.

Among the imperative and Christian duties of our country now is the education of the freedmen. In the immortal proclamation of President Lincoln, January 1, 1863, there is an implied promise that the United States would instruct the freedmen in the new rights and new duties of their new condition. That divine proclamation changed all the slaves—into what? Not into orangoutangs,

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