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[p. 16] what the Commonwealth of Massachusetts adopted in its laws, and as we have become used to them, we find it difficult to conceive of the conditions, some of which have already been described.

The system Brooks undertook to change was based first on the district, that is, that the education of the children was a matter to be cared for by the tax payers in that district. Hence, in advocating the principle that the education of the children was a concern of the State as well as of the locality, Brooks had to run counter to the feeling of local pride, for frequently a town would be subdivided into districts, each of which was independent of the others as regards its management of its schools.

Brooks stated often that he originated nothing, but that he brought to his own people what he found abroad. But this is not a fair statement of what he did. A comparison of what Dr. Julius told him on that voyage of forty-one days with the system as Brooks developed it. is indicative of how clearly and fully Brooks comprehended the defects of the educational system prevailing here.

Dr. Julius, during his tour of investigation in the United States, attended at Philadelphia a meeting of those interested in the welfare of prisoners. His remarks on education in its bearing on the prevention of crime were so well received that he was asked to allow them to be printed. It is fair to presume that he would not at that meeting state his facts any less strongly or clearly than he did to Brooks on that long voyage, so that we may regard these statements as being those on which Brooks based his enthusiasm for the Prussian system.1

The well-known-and since Mr. Cousin published his interesting report-far-famed Prussian system of national education went properly into practice in the year 1819, and has three fundamental principles and supporting pillars.

First, the creation of seminaries or schools for teachers in the

1 Remarks on the relation between Education and Crime in a letter to the Rt. Rev. William White, D. D., president of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, by Francis Lieber, Ll. D. To which are added some observations by N. H. Julius, M. D., of Hamburg, a corresponding member of the society. Published by order of the society, Philadelphia, 1835.

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