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[p. 55] in the book are rather formidable. It may be interesting to notice that the average amount consumed was about two shillings' worth per rod.

The railroad was built more largely by foreign labor, and the amount of the ‘crathur’ then consumed cannot be well ascertained, as the work was done under a different system. The canal passed through but few hills, but rather, around them, as seen in the ‘Oxbow’ at Wilmington; but the railroad, though not the straightest in its course, had deep cuts in Charlestown between Prospect and Winter Hills, Walnut Tree Hill in Medford, again through the Brooks estate along the shore of Medford pond, and still again in Woburn, near what was called the Watering Station.

The material excavated in these cuts formed the embankments across marshes and places of uneven grade, and its transportation was done by oxen and horses, as there was then no rolling stock. The science of railroad building was then in its infancy, and the ideas of construction have since undergone much change.

The men of that time deemed that the construction should be of the most solid character and built accordingly. They doubtless thought to profit by the experience of the canal people, who built most of its locks and all its aqueducts at first with wood, and later replaced with stone, as the wood decayed. The railway track in order to be substantial and require little repair, was laid on ties of split granite. These were brought down from Tyngsborough on the Merrimack and through the canal on the canal boats, and delivered at convenient points along the line. Professor Dame in his article upon the canal alluded to this, styling it a case of a ‘corporation assisting in the preparation of its own obsequies.’ It did so and more, as will be seen later. There are still many persons who remember these ‘stone sleepers’ which have been entirely removed for thirty-five years. There are very few people, however, that are aware of the construction beneath, which still lies buried there. Beneath each rail of

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