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[p. 62] front end of the boiler, and these required a cranked axle for the forward pair of driving wheels. Nearly all were resplendent with a wealth of brass work which made the fireman's position one of strenuous work to keep up the shine.

Till the use of coal for fuel began, all had immense conical smoke-stacks, some four feet in diameter at the top, and most all had an iron rail extending from the cab around the entire machine, so that in passing around, the engine-men might not fall overboard.

By 1850 the engines were all provided with cabs for their occupants' shelter from storm. The method of water supply was by a force-pump that derived its power from the motion of the engine, and this method was in use as late as 1865.

Not till about 1857 was coal used for fuel; it did not come into exclusive use on this road till ten years later, and with its adoption the smoke-stacks were changed in form and decreased in size.

The cars were of first and second class, and were entered through doors at their sides. After a time the second class cars had a compartment for baggage and express parcels. In this class the seats were fixed back to back, half facing each way, and there were no cushions. Those of the first class were entered as now at the end from a platform, and had a slightly curved roof and were high enough for a man to stand upright in if he was n't too tall or did not wear a stove-pipe hat. They were very well lighted, as the sides were mostly windows of small panes of glass that rattled merrily. The seats were arranged in the present manner and were upholstered in black haircloth. Sheet-iron stoves of the kind known as air-tight, placed at the middle of one side, heated the portion nearest them, warmed more remote parts, while the ends of the cars partook of the outdoor temperature. Ill-smelling lamps, that burned sperm or whale oil, made the darkness visible when night came on apace. This description applies to cars in use from '52 to ‘65 approximately.

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