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[p. 28] bridge. That portion of the hill west of the schoolhouse lot remains in substantially its natural condition, except for a few minor changes.

On the southeasterly side of the hill near the river was a thick deposit of coarse white gravel, which covered the granite formation, forming the bank of the river and extending down to the marsh line. It is probable that there was but little, if any, marsh west of Main street. Judging from what is known of the conformation of the hill, the gravelly beach must have extended as far as the square. It was on this slope of the hill, close to the water's edge, near the fording place, on the pathway from Salem to Mistick ford and near to the future location of the bridge, that Governor Cradock's servants selected their dwelling-place. It was an ideal spot, there being no other location from Wilson's farm to the Wears, taking all things into consideration, that could compare with the surroundings of what is now the present square. (See map of Ten Hills farm made in 1637, also map supposed to have been made in 1633 and bearing legends in the handwriting of Governor John Winthrop, in Vol. I, No. 4, of the Medford Historical register.)

No traces of the granite formation have been found east of Governors avenue. All the houses on the north side of High street were supplied with water from wells dug down into the white gravel deposit.

Before proceeding to consider the changes that have taken place on the easterly and southerly side of the hill, let us put ourselves on the same position as did the writer of the article on the ancient ford. (See Vol. IV, No. 1, of the Medford Historical register.) The writer, in attempting to describe the situation of the landscape as it existed at the date of the settlement of the plantation, located his mind's eye on the crest of the hill, in the rear of the site of the old high school lot on High street, and gazed about the landing place of the ford a short distance both east and west. Locating our mind's eye in the position above referred to, let us gaze southerly and easterly from the landing place of the ford


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