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The following is an extract from a letter written by a distinguished Virginian, who has been an active participant in the deliberation of the Carolinas for a few weeks past:

‘ "The act to call a Convention passed both Houses (and both very full) unanimously. --I have not seen an individual, or even heard of a man in the State, who is opposed to secession from the Union. This will be done within three days after the Convention meets, on December 17th. Both the South Carolina Senators have resigned their seats in Congress. The private dispatches from Georgia and Florida assert the readiness of those States for secession. Alabama will not be far behind, according to like reports. A private dispatch today, from Milledgeville, from a gentleman of highest standing, of talent and great discretion, says that the Legislature of Georgia will certainly call a Convention. The refusal of that body to elect a Senator in place of Iverson, is a significant indication of its willingness to secession. The greatest enthusiasm continues here. Speeches delivered every night to the same unwearied crowd."

’ The views of Mr. Lincoln about the use of force in the case of secession seem to be borne out by some of the Republican papers at the North. In his Leavenworth speech he said:

‘ "Your own statement is, that if the Black Republicans elect a President, you won't stand it! You will break up the Union. That will be your act, not ours. So, if constitutionally we elect a President, and, therefore, you undertake to destroy the Union, it will be our duty to deal with you as old John Brown was dealt with. We shall try to do our duty. We hope and believe that in no section will a majority so act as to render such extreme measures necessary!"

’ The Boston Atlas, commenting on the position of affairs in South Carolina, gives the following as the programme which would be carried out by the Federal Government in a case of dissolution:

‘ "If the Federal Government should attempt to invade the domain of State-Rights, that would be despotism and cause of resistance; but there is no such cause, and there will be none. Should any State attempt to resume powers expressly yielded to the Federal Government, that would be treason, and would justify the exercise of forcible means by the Federal Government to bring back the offending State to its allegiance to the Constitution and the Union. But no such case has arisen — none will arise. There is, therefore, no existing right of secession, and the claim for it is utterly indefensible. Secession ought not to be, and that is one of the strongest reasons why it never will be."

"Secondly, the slave States have not the power to secede. Unless permitted by the Federal Government quietly to withdraw, they cannot go. It is absurd to suppose that a President and a Congress and a Judiciary, sworn to maintain the Constitution and the laws, will ever permit a State to secede. If they should, they would violate their oaths and become participants in the crime of treason.--The only other possible method of secession is by violence, involving the nullification of the Federal laws and armed resistance to the Federal authority. In such a contest the slave States would be speedily and deservedly crushed by the strong arm of power. They have neither the wealth, the intelligence, the arts, the arms, nor the character requisite to maintain the struggle."

’ A meeting was held at Woodstock, Shenandoah county, on Monday last, at which, after speeches by Gen. Williams and Hon. Mr. Harris, resolutions were adopted in favor of calling a State Convention, to consider federal relations, and requesting the Lincoln voters in that county to emigrate to a free State. It is said summary action will soon be taken in the case of George Rye, Republican elector, who is a resident in that county.

The Culpeper C. H. (Va.) Observer says: ‘" Some of our young gentlemen have mounted the blue cockade and the Virginia button, while others sport the red, white and blue rosettes. We hope they will not come in collision during these exciting times."’

The South Carolina Legislature, before adjourning, accepted the resignation of U. S. Senator Hammond. In the Charleston papers several cards have appeared, calling on gentlemen to stand for places in the State Convention. These gentlemen have declined being nominated in that way, and the Courier, commending their determination, says:

‘ There should be no division, or distraction, or personal element in the councils and purposes of Electors, called upon to constitute a body clothed with the sovereignty of the State, and charged with the weighty and solemn responsibilities of a new political adjustment.--In the spirit of the remarks of the Hon. W. F. Colcock, whose eloquent appeal, on Monday evening, was so cordially received, we bespeak unity of action and a toleration of opinions and personal preferences, in subordination to the great duty and issue before us.

The electoral body of Charleston must seek out diligently the wisest and worthiest citizens, of ripe judgment and approved fidelity, and must and should call such, and such only, to this great office. Those who are most worthy will be most reluctant to accept; but, in such an emergency, the deliberately expressed choice of the Electors should overrule personal considerations. Let no rash pledges be given, and let there be no encouragement to personal aspiration or factious combinations. In good time, measures can be taken to secure a proper and responsible selection of names worthy of the choice of the people.

’ The Mercury, under the caption, "The ball rolls on," says:

‘ The Clinch Rifles, of Augusta, telegraphed yesterday to the Washington Light Infantry, of this city, "We are ready to go with you." The Minute Men of Norfolk, Va., have written to this city for the pattern of a Palmetto flag. Three hundred men are ready in that city to move — paying their own expenses — to the assistance of any State that the Federal Government may attempt to coerce into submission.

’ A New York letter to the Charleston Courier says:

‘ As you are, perhaps, aware, the Wide A wake organization is not to be discontinued. Among them are a majority of the 7th Regiment--National Guard. As far as I know, in every other Regiment in the city the members are conservative Union men, and betray but little joy at the election of Lincoln.

The same paper has the following item:

The steamship James Adger reports a specie list of $230,000 for our banks and dealers.

Several additions, in considerable amounts, have been made within the past week to our specie supply in Banks and in private hands.

A telegraphic dispatch says that the Military Convention, in session at Milledgeville, Ga., representing sixty-seven companies, on the question of the immediate secession of Georgia, voted two to one in favor of the measure. The minority was in favor of resistance, but doubted the expediency of the resolution.

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