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Latest news by mail.

The financial condition of New York, (says the Day Book', of Wednesday evening,) is getting to be full of serious apprehensions. The effort of the banks to save the credit of the Government has crippled their resources to such a degree that they cannot assist business men, and the consequence is, they are all going by the board. The Evening Post, a Republican organ, thus unburdens its complaints.

Our dry goods auctioneers are reduced to the sity of refusing to make sales. The banks will not take their paper, and the owners of goods could not stand the excessive street rates. In fact, we have reached an extremity bordering on general commercial suspension of payment in staple branches of trade.

The bank loans are pretty well maintained. but these consist largely of public securities Federal stocks and Treasury notes taking the place of business paper.

It seems to us that there is no need to submit to discredit and insolvency as a fatality. This is the very emergency when our banks may do the country a great service. They are supposed to be commercial institutions, and their standard relations are directly with commerce--not with the government. We have no quarrel with their investment of surplus funds in the Federal debts, but we apprehend that their legitimate service to commerce, which includes all kinds of labor, and industry, would be far better for the common good.

The Journal of Commerce, in commenting on the above, says:

‘ As the above appears in a leading Republican paper, it is very suggestive. Is it true that the Banks are so full of public securities that they cannot take care of ‘"their standard relations"’ The Post must know that the Government is now asking to borrow upwards of thirty millions more, and the Banks are making arrangements to take liberally of these ‘"Federal debts."’ does the editor wish to discourage this, and to insist that these insolutions would do better to look after the interests of commerce and to refuse their aid to the Governments ! What does the Post mean by its concluding threat that, if ‘"the arm of finance now wielded by our banks"’ is ‘"withdrawn from that direct and just service, it will lose the sympathy of the masses who most still live by labor and trade ?"’ If all this means that the Banks had better not loan the money to Government, under pain of popular displeasure, why not say so in plain, an varnished phrase?

’ The New York papers of Wednesday and Thursday report more failures, and a ‘"disturbed, restless feeling"’ in the money market generally. Virginia 6's are quoted at 46, and North Carolinas at 58.

The steamer Asia, from New York for Liverpool took out 147 passengers and in specie. Among her passengers are W. S. Thayer, U. S. Consul to Egypt, and A. S. Ranckel, bearer of dispatches.

The Journal of Commerce, of Wednesday evening, thus exposes the exaggerations of the Northern telegraph.

The Government is sending to-day $800,000 to gold and silver to Washington. The sent before was magnified by rumor, would that rumor could realize its vision?) to half a million before it actually reached Philadelphia, and it ‘"amounted to $4,000,000"’ when it ‘"arrived at Washington in charge of Major Anderson"’

According to the following it appears that the Yankees think they have caught one of those terrible privateers, though none have been put in commission.

Washington, May 8.--Quartermaster's Sergeant Day, of N. Y. Seventy-first Regiment, just from Annapolis, reports that in cruising up and down the Potomac and in the Chesapeake, a Privateer was captured off the mouth of the Chesapeake.

She is a schooner fully armed, her name erased, and with a streak of yellow paint over the usual place of the vessel's name, which is intended as a disguise. Two men were taken on board, and the others filed in the schooner's boats.

The schooner was taken to Annapolis to-day. The captors were a detachment of the N. Y., 13th.

A Government steamer has been sent to restore the light vessels and buoys removed by the Secessionists over two weeks since. On board are some of the Firemen Zouaves.

Secretary Chase has determined to establish a complete blockade of the Mississippi, at Cairo. The order instructs Western Collectors not only to refuse clearances, but to search every boat, train, &c., bound South, seize both munitions of war and supplies of provisions, and bring shippers and carriers to justice for adding the ‘"Southern rebels."’ Kentucky and Missouri are the only slaveholding States bordering on the Ohio and Mississippi exempt from the prohibition.

The following lie is telegraphed from Washington to the New York Herald:

A gentleman from the North, who has been residing in Richmond for some months, has just arrived here, having left there yesterday. He gives a very graphic account of his getting out of that city. He says he was requested to take up arms, which he refused to do, and thereupon he was arrested and put under guard, and not allowed to leave the State--He was then taken by a mob before a magistrate. The magistrate held him for some time and finally sent for the Mayor know what he should do with him. Orders were given not to permit him to have a pass, but to let him remain until Monday, when, unless he took up arms, he should be put in irons.--In the meantime he managed to elude their vigilance, and secreted himself in the cars, where he remained until they left. When he arrived at Orange the mob at that station took him out and searched him, but found nothing suspicious upon him. He was again placed under guard, out again he eluded them while they were engaged in pursuing other cases, and finally got out of the town.

By the following; which is also telegraphed from Washington, it is clear enough that ‘"spies"’ are constantly ‘"on the watch"’:

A traveler from Richmond says there are a large number of troops from the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, and that others are pouring in by every train that arrives. How many there are is impossible to tell, as everything is kept secret. He says they are deceiving the Administration. He says he heard, just before leaving, that five hundred Kentucky riflemen had just arrived, with sixty-three field pieces. They have nearly one thousand men employed, he says in manufacturing arms. He says they have plenty of provisions, enough to last two years; also plenty of ammunition, except percussion caps, and they have a committee, who have a large number of men engaged to devise means of getting them, under any kind of pretence, dead or alive. He says there are several persons now in the Northern cities trying to get a sufficient supply.

Jefferson Davis had notified Gov. Letcher of his intention to take command of the troops, and would plan the operations of attack.--Col Lee and Gen. Beauregard would have command of a force of several thousand.

My informant further says that he was told that there were five men who had taken an oath to assassinate President Lincoln and Gen. Scott, if it cost them their lives. They are to go direct to Washington, and will attempt their purpose as soon as the first conflict takes place.

My informant is a highly respectable gentleman, and I give the above points as he gave them to me, with this exception, that they are not half so startling as detailed by him

Some further items telegraphed from Washington on the 8th will be read with interest, though they show that the newspaper correspondents are entirely in the dark as to the projected military movements:

The announcement that the Government intended to advance troops into Virginia on yesterday and to-day was unwarranted. I feel, however, authorized to state positively that a corps d'armes will cross the Potomac and enter Virginia from this point at no distant day. To commence a campaign without due preparation is a folly of which General Scott will not be guilty.

The steamer Cambridge has arrived here from Boston, via Fort Monroe. She made the run to Fort Monroe in fifty-six hours, and landed a reinforcement of several Massachusetts companies.

The steamer Roanoke arrived last night with the Salem (Mass.) Zouaves and military stores.

John Brown, Jr., son of old John Brown, of Harper's Ferry notoriety, will have a conspicuous part in the contemplated movement upon that somewhat notorious Arsenal.--Young Brown is a very brave man, and will no doubt be stimulated with a new incentive to action at this particular point under all the circumstances.

General Harney has been ordered to St. Louis on duty.

General Lane was dispatched some days ago to Kansas on important business connected with the Kansas on important business connected with the Government. He will have command of a large force, and will proceed as soon as possible through the Indian country to Fort Smith, for the purpose of retaking that post, and all others belonging to the Government, in both Missouri and Arkansas. General Lane stated before leaving Washington, that with one thousand men, such as he could bring into the field, he could march successfully through that entire section of country. Several hundred men under his command will be composed of the same class that served under Montgomery.

There are an army of contractors now in Washington, anxious to serve the Govern ment in the way of furnishing supplies.--They are besieging the War and Navy Departments. There are some very fat contracts to be given out, amounting to several millions of dollars.

Congressman Bouligny, of Louisiana, arrived here to-day from New Orleans. He states that four thousand soldiers have left that city for Lynchburg, Va., and that large bodies of troops from other parts of the Confederate States are moving in the same direction.

He says that a strong Union settlement still exists in New Orleans, but is kept in complete subjection by the Secessionists. He traveled for some distance with Senator Johnson, who was groaned as a traitor at nearly every station.

A fresh batch of army resignations were received to-day. Some of them are names of distinction.

The following items are among the ‘"latest from the South,"’ in the New York papers:

The Southerners do not want Fort Pickens, unless the Confederate Government is acknowledged by the European Powers. There is now in Pensacola ten thousand secession troops camped. Their being there is but a bait. The entire distance from Pensacola to Washington can be passed over in five days, is there is rail the entire distance. Some fine morning Lieut. Slemmer and his garrison will wake up and look on an empty camp.

A gentleman came through Montgomery within the past week and stated that General Beauregard was not there, nor has he been to any of the places which he was reported at the North to have been in — Richmond, Mobile, Charleston, Montgomery, or Pensacola. His movements are very mysterious.

A bet of $500 was offered and accepted in Delmonico's Hotel, in this city, that General Beauregard was killed at the bombardment of Fort Sumter.

All the volunteers of the South concentrate in Montgomery, and are sent North. As a general thing they are a most desperate and blood-thirsty looking set of men.

A gentleman just arrived from the South says that one-half of this secession is the repudiation of debts.

It is a common remark amongst the Southerners that one of them can whip ten Yankees, and if any person wishes to argue that point with them he is advised before doing so to make his will.

From conversations heard by a gentleman just arrived and whose statement is reliable, we learn that in Lynchburg and vicinity there was an army concentrated of fifty thousand men. This was a week ago.

The Pony Express, with San Francisco dates to the 27th ult., passed Fort Kearney on Tuesday afternoon. The news of the attack on, and evacuation of, Fort Sumter had been received in San Francisco, and caused a marked effect in business circles. The insurance agents were refusing to negotiate insurance on gold shipped for the East. A meeting of bankers had been held to take some action on this subject, but nothing definite had transpired.

In consequence of the vast war preparations in the South, the Northern papers vehemently urge the necessity for an increase of troops. Gov. Dennison, of Ohio, has called for 100,000 more volunteers. They continue to harp on the idea of an attack upon Washington.

Warren Leland, of the Metropolitan Hotel, New York, has tendered his services to the Governor of Vermont, his native State, to lead the first regiment of Green Mountain boys.

The following dispatch comes from Harrisburg, Pa., and although it is denied by the Northern papers, we have no doubt of its truth:

A serious breach exists between Gov. Curtin and the Legislature, which body has thus far refused to make any appropriation for military purposes, unless unprecedented restrictions are made with regard to the disbursements and appointments. It is understood, however, in well informed circles, that the real object is to pinch down the appropriation. The indignation of the volunteers in camp is intense, and with the slightest encouragement, the Legislature would be driven from the Capital.

The feeling of the true and good men of all parties is with the Governor, who is very much mortified at the idea of being hampered. The seventeen sworn members of the Senate are in the ‘"ring."’

A letter from the Surgeon of the New York 6th Regiment, composed mostly of Germans, tells how they got along at Annapolis:

I have this moment returned from Fort Madison, where I slept last night, and more suffering I never saw. It was raining very hard, and the poor devils of men lay around in the grass all night, with no other covering than the clouded canopy.

The Sixth Regiment are in want of overcoats and blankets, which ought to be for warded by those very patriotic gentlemen who are so fond of presenting flags, &c., to other regiments, well known to be rich. We have the hard work to do, along with the 8th of New York. By the by, D. was ordered up last night to throw up fortifications near this place. He occupied, I have been told, a hen coop, while the men slept in tents. Hard work for poor D. He is out of whiskey, and I have sent him some by private hands.

A dispatch from Baltimore says arrests are made of parties there, charged with participation in the attack on the Massachusetts troops.

The Neward Evening Journal says:

‘ There is great, and we may say almost universal, dissatisfaction expressed by the soldiers at Washington and elsewhere, at the quality of the food furnished by the Government, or their contractors, and the papers are filled with grumbling accounts.

’ The New York Independent, the Rev. Captain Beecher's organ, lays out the war programme on a truly evangelical scale. It says:

‘ While the army of defence holds Washington and awes Baltimore, let two grand armies, each 150,000 men, march simultaneously, the one through Virginia, and the other along the Mississippi base, the fleets mean while threatening Charleston and New Orleans.

’ On looking over our recent French papers, (says the Charleston Courier,) we learn from the Journal of Havre, of the 9th ultimo, that the Secretary of the Navy has ordered a frigate to repair to the coast of South Carolina. This has been done, it is said, in consequence of the receipt of communications from President Davis.

We learn from the Charleston papers that the gallant Palmetto Guard, CaptCuthbert, left that city on Thursday night for Richmond.

L. P. Walker, Secretary of War, has accepted Major Flournoy's regiment of Arkansas troops for service in Virginia, and they are to go to Lynchburg.

Messrs. C. H. Schwecke and Daniel Bulkley, citizens of Charleston, were drowned last Tuesday, near that city, while on a fishing excursion.

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