Foreign news.The mails by the Nova Scotian, from Liverpool to the 27th ult., furnish the following items of foreign news not telegraphed: The Italian correspondent of the London Times says that the year 1861 will not, perhaps, grow very old before French troops are in possession of Gaeta, and possibly Naples itself. Considerable quantities of provisions were being dispatched from Rome to Gaeta. King Victor Emanuel had held a reception of the nobility, &c., at Naples, on the 24th, which was numerously attended. An enthusiastic demonstration in favor of his Majesty took place in the evening. The King would quit Naples on the 27th, after attending the bail of the National Guard. The garrison at Gaeta has been diminished in number by the dismissal of a portion of the Royal Guard, whose fidelity was doubtful.--The remaining defenders were in a deplorable state, but their resistance could be carried on still further for a considerable period.
Vienna is confident that nothing but brute force can induce the Austrian Government to quit the Quadrilateral. There was a report that England and France had come to an understanding with regard to Venetian, and that a joint commission would shortly be sent to Vienna, urging the cession of Venetia without any territorial recompense. It is stated that Austria had opened negotiations with Rome for the complete abolition of the Concordat. Accounts from Hungary are very unsatisfactory. No taxes were being paid.
China early in the year. The second regiment was about to leave, and twelve men-of-war were also coming home. The fate of the entire party of prisoners taken Sept. 18, has been ascertained. The death of Captain Brabazon occurred on the 1st, and he was saved much suffering that others underwent. He was beheaded by the order of a Tartar General. The Abbe de Luc was beheaded at the same time. The more indifference Lord Elgin displayed about signing the Convention, the more alarmed the Chinese government became; but a great retribution awaited the Emperor and his government. It was resolved that the summer palace of the Emperor should be burned to the ground, as it was the spot where some of the cruelties towards the prisoners had been perpetrated. Proclamations were posted in Pekin informing the people of the measures that were to be taken, and the reasons for their adoption. The gardens, palaces, temples and pagodas occupied a space of six or seven miles in extent. Two days were required effectually to set fire to and destroy all the buildings. The loss of the property destroyed exceeds £2,000,000, exclusive of the buildings. The Chinese were brought to terms on other points by proclamations from Sir Hope Grant, threatening to sack Pekin. On the day peace was signed, Lord Elgin and Sir Hope Grant entered Pekin, accompanied by an escort of six hundred men and one hundred officers of regiments. Lord Elgin was carried in his State chair by the Chinese, dressed in scarlet. Sir Robert Napier's division lined the streets as Lord Elgin passed, and followed at intervals, taking up a strategical position in case of treachery. His lordship was received by Prince Kung. Lord Elgin's manner was stern and calm. He motioned Kung to a seat on his right, which is considered the lowest seat. On the return of the Ambassador and Commander-in-Chief, the streets were occupied by the troops, so that the capital of the Chinese Empire was in actual possession of the British. Prince Kung said to Lord Elgin that many mistakes had been made in their intercourse with foreigners, but he hoped for a new state of things.