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The rout of the Federal army.

There is an evident effort being made upon the part of the Federalists to revive the drooping spirits of their defeated soldiery, by glorifying Gen. McClellan and attributing to him military abilities not warranted. One of the correspondents of a Northern paper says:

‘ If the War Department wishes to retrieve the fortunes of the country, let them get Major-General McClellan, raise him to the rank of a Lieutenant General by brevet, and give him the control of the army, Such an arrangement would be eminently satisfactory to Gen. Scott, and it is, perhaps, the only thing that can infuse life and spirit into our now drooping soldiers. If we had had in the field and upon the spot a General like Beauregard, the disaster would not have reached its present fearful proportions. There could have been no rout; no loss of cannon; no throwing away of muskets and knapsacks.

’ He continues:

‘ Destitute of artillery and cavalry, it is impossible for us to make any movement towards Richmond until this want is supplied. But it is in our power to hold Washington.--But even to do that, we must act wisely, instantly, and vigorously. We want 100,000 men here, ten thousand every day for the next ten days. We want five times as many cannon as we had, of the same kind as those. We want ten thousand cavalry.

’ An attack on Washington is apprehended, and upon this point the correspondent says:

‘ The greatest consternation prevails here among families and citizens generally. It is eared that Beauregard may attack the city my moment, and if so, that he will take it, it cannot be denied that there are some grounds for apprehension; but when the subject is examined, it is seen that such a thing is an attack on Washington can form no part of the present plans of the rebel General. His troops, indeed, are more numerous than pure, and are flushed with victory, while cure are dispirited with defeat.

The idea of encircling Washington on all sides with a chain of forts, each one like Fore McHenry, which was brought forward in my letter some days ago, is now seen to be one that cannot be acted on too soon. With forts on the heights on this side of the river, as well as on the right bank, Washington's strength might laugh a siege to score. Without them, it the entrenchments there are carried, we are gone.

The arrival of ambulances here, bringing in the dead and wounded, is incessant. Some of the wounded have been lying in the woods ever since Sunday! Had it not been for the food in their haversacks, and the water in their canteens, they must have died of starvation . All the physicians and surgeons in this city are busy attending to the wounded, and some have been sent for from Baltimore An immense number of arms and legs have been amputated. The groans of some of the wounded, as they are brought in, are agonizing.

The Cabinet have been in session ever since Monday morning, with an intermission from one till twelve this morning.

Just as I close it is rumored that a courier has passed our lines blindfolded, and has been conducted to headquarters. It is said he beefs a communication from Jeff. Davis to the President. Conjecture is wild as to its contents, but they may be interred from his former one. This is no doubt a repetition of it, and a demand for recognition.

The New York 71st, a crack regiment, which suffered awfully at Bull's Run, is going home.

There is great discontent among the Zouaves, as they have not been paid one cent by New York. The loss of this regiment was more than one half; in one company of 97 men 50 are lost.

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