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From the North.

We continue our extracts from the latest Northern papers. Gov. Stanley, of North Carolina, had arrived in Washington. All the officers who advised Col. Mason to surrender at Clarkesville, Tenn., have been dismissed from the Federal army for cowardice. Gen. Corcoran is making so many speeches at the North that the papers are commencing to head their reports ‘"still another speech from Corcoran."’ The ‘"great battle"’ which was to come is thus spoken of by the New York Herald, after commenting on the news given in Pope's dispatch:

But with all this good and certain news we have yet to fight a battle that is to be the decisive one in front of the National Capital, and it will undoubtedly be one of great magnitude and importance. The Government takes this view of the position of things in that neighborhood, and to meet the emergency it is announced that McClellan takes the immediate command of the whole Army of Virginia, with Pope and Burnside at the head of the two auxiliary armies of the Rappahannock and Potomac.

Our abolition disorganizing radicals may sneer at this reorganization of the several armies of McClellan, Pope, and Burnside; they may say that the best we can now look for is the retreat of all these armies behind the fortifications of Arlington Heights, the dropping of the musket, the resumption of the spade, and another winter siege of Washington and blockade of the Potomac by the rebel army. But we expect nothing of the sort. There is to be active and sharp work. The fortifications in front of Washington are the base and onward is now the word. The question which is presented to General Lee is not how is General Pope to be most effectively put out of the way, but how is an engagement to be avoided without having to fight the superior forces of Pope, McClellan, and Burnside combined?

This is the battle which we now anticipate, with or without the choice of Gen. Lee, and there is no reason to apprehend any other than the best results. It is not likely that if Gen. Halleck had any misgivings whatever he would permit, at this crisis, regiment after regiment to return home. The three months service of these regiments has expired, but we know that they would promptly and cheerfully consent to remain near Washington ten, twenty, or thirty days longer if called upon to do so. In the fact that they have not been thus called upon, it is evident that Gen. Halleck is satisfied that everything is safe, and that the general plan of this campaign has not been disturbed by these late rebel operations around Manassas.

The issue will be settled within a very few days, and we expect the most glorious results to the cause of the Union.

Yankee Estimate of the Confederate army.

The Washington Star gives the following data in relation to the strength of the Confederate army since its retreat last spring from Manassas:

Our informant states that Gen. Johnston left Manassas with 40,000 effective men. Gen. Magruder held Yorktown with 7,500 effective men when the Union army landed. The Confederates, acting under the advice of Gen. Lee, left Yorktown with 67,000 men. On June 1st 85,000 rations were issued to the Confederate army before Richmond. Detailed reports, by regiments, brigades, and battalions, of all but 17 captains, showed that 6,357 soldiers were placed hors du combat in the battle of Seven Pines. On June 21st, 128,000 rations were issued to the rebel army before Richmond. By July 20th 30,000 new troops had reached Richmond from the South, most of whom were new levies, and not regarded as thoroughly safe. On the 13th of August there were six regiments of infantry at Savannah, and a force of 34,000 near Charleston. Gen. Lee and Staff left Richmond headquarters (Tabb's farm, Nine Mile road) for Gordonsville. after telegraphing to Gen. Mercer, at Savannah, for the infantry at that post, and to Gen. Pemberton for as many as could be spared from the defence of Charleston. Deduct from 128,000, on June 20th, 10,000 for double rations and followers, which would leave 115,000. Losses in battles of Richmond, say 15,000. Number remaining, 100,000; to which add new troops 30,000, and deduct therefrom 20,000 for defence of Richmond, would make the Confederate army of Virginia, opposite our lines, to number 110,000 effective men.

From Washington--Col. Adler.

A letter from Washington, dated the 29th, says:

‘ Among the arrivals here today was that of Col. Adolphus H. Adler, late a Colonel of engineers in the rebel service. At the beginning of the war he was upon the staff of Henry A. Wise, in his Western Virginia campaign, but resigned and refused to re-enter the rebel service, although importuned by John B. Floyd and offered high rank in the rebel army. For this reason he was arrested and imprisoned, with many of the Union officers and John Minor Botts and other prominent men of Virginia. About two weeks ago he made his escape, and by a circuitous route reached our lines on foot, and was directed to report to Washington. He possesses valuable information in regard to the force, position, and condition of the enemy.

The condition of affairs in Maryland is not satisfactory to loyal Union men. It is well known that the rebels there are thoroughly organized in every county in the State, and there is reason to believe they are fully prepared with arms, and only wait an opportunity to raise the black flag of rebellion. The military authorities are strongly urged to require the disarming immediately of all who will not take the oath of allegiance.

The Hunter and Phelps retaliation order.

The New York Tribune has the following about the order of President Davis relative to Generals Hunter and Phelps:

‘ Treason has thus betrayed its weak points in its frantic attempts to cover it. The avowal by Jeff. Davis & Co. of the mortal terror wherewith the act of Gens. Hunter and Phelps has inspired them is that act's most emphatic justification.

This threat to hang Gens. Hunter and Phelps as felons — when they shall have been captured — is an utter defiance of the laws of war. Those Generals have a perfect right, in accordance with those laws, to organize and arm loyal blacks. But Lee, and Johnston, and Magruder, and Cooper, and the other traitors who deserted from the army of the United States to lend their swords to the rebellion, are every one of them liable, by the laws of war, to the penalty which they unjustifiably denounce against Hunter and Phelps. They are traitors to their Government and country — Hunter and Phelps are not. Let them beware how they sow hemp, for no one knows who may wear the product!

A Naive Suggestion.

The New York Herald suggests that ‘"Gen. Halleck should at once apply to Gen. Stuart's rebel cavalry the same rule which he has enforced against newspaper correspondents, and that they be excluded wholly from the lines of our army. They certainly get a great deal more valuable information than our press could give them, especially if the report is true that they dashed in one morning and seized all Gen. Pope's baggage, private papers, charts, maps &c., including Gen. Halleck's dispatches, plans of the campaign, and specific instructions about newspaper correspondents. Something of the energy and vigilance so lavishly used in preventing the loyal people of the country from knowing what their army is doing, might be usefully bestowed on the rebel cavalry."’

More rebel Mail-Carriers Nabbed.

Richard Felton, John Leighton, and Joseph Keller, were captured on Sunday morning, about three o'clock, by the pickets of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, a few miles from Portsmouth, while attempting to run the ‘"blockade"’ with letters for Richmond. The line of pickets had just been established, and the worthy trio, not being aware of it, were taken by surprise. During the chase they scattered the letters upon, their persons in the grass, which were, however, recovered.--Followed by quite a crowd, they were escorted to the ‘"Hotel de Vicle"’ by a corporal's guard, whence they were conducted to prison by order of Provost Marshal Liberian.--Norfolk Union.

The war to end by spring.

The New York Herald thinks the war can easily be ended by next spring. It says:

‘ In order to make sure of the desired result, our army will not take the offensive till it is fully recruited, and the six hundred thousand new troops swell it to a million by the first of November next. By the same time the iron-clad gunboats will have been finished, and the mailed fleet will number some fifty vessels, sufficient to capture Charleston, Savannah, and every port on the Southern seaboard, during the winter months, when such operations are more practicable, in consequence of the milder temperature. These invincible vessels, moreover, can penetrate the interior of the country by the water courses and aid the movements of our armies in the Gulf States. The armies put in motion by the first frost will sweep in such overwhelming force over Virginia and the entire South that effective resistance will be impossible, and the rebel forces will be all surrounded and captured or disorganized and dispersed, so that by the middle of January the rebellion will have received its death blow, and the republic will have vindicated its title of ‘"one and indivisible."’

The New York Herald's and Times Views of the late Movements.

The designs of the enemy were to turn the right flank of Gen. Pope, to cut off his supply trains and to cut his army to pieces before it could form a junction with that of McClellan, and then to pounce upon McClellan, and overwhelm him, and then to move triumphantly into Washington and dictate a treaty of pence from the White House.

The tremendous stakes for which the rebel leaders were thus playing, were sufficient to encourage them to their utmost exertions to overhaul and crush the army of Pope before it could be sufficiently strengthened to repel them. And they have exerted themselves to the utmost to this end, in their forced marches upon short rations, in their cavalry incursions to cut off or destroy our supply and baggage trains, and in their desperate efforts at various points, for four or five days, to force their way across the Rappahannock. The river, however, at its ordinary summer level, can be forded almost anywhere between Warrenton and Fredericksburg; but recent heavy rains in the neighboring mountains had rendered it impassable for several days, except at the bridges and fords commanded by our batteries. Thus the elements have providentially come to our support at the very crisis when their intervention was most needed. It is not in the order of Providence that our Government and our country shall be, by this insane rebellion, destroyed.

The insolent and confident rebel army from Richmond has been brought to a stand. It will next be compelled to face about to the South again; and this time, from the severe lessons that we have learned from over estimating our own strength and despising that of the enemy in the field, we shall advance fully prepared to grapple with a rebel army of even three hundred thousand men, to rout it, and to gather up its broken fragments right on to the Gulf of Mexico. Let us push forward our reinforcements to Washington, so that Gen. Halleck may be able to turn the tables upon the rebel army before it fails back to its defences at Richmond.

From the New York Times, Thursday, we copy the following:

‘ The rebels new stand in front of our armies there, numbering at the outside 125,000, while to meet them we have already not less than 200,000, which will very speedily be increased to 250,000 or 300,000, and can be increased, if necessary, to 400,000 men. Our position is strong, and although the enemy seems to be making frequent and desperate attempts to turn our flanks, or break our line, there is not one chance in ten of his achieving any important success. By destroying the bridges across the Rappahannock we have rendered their passage of that river impossible, and have secured for our selves all the time we need for preparation. The remainder of the Army of the Potomac will speedily take its position — and then, without waiting to be attacked, or allowing himself to be put upon the defensive, even for a day, the country expects Gen. Halleck to put himself at the head of this magnificent and irresistible national army, and march over the rebels into Richmond. He will have all the force the enterprise will require, and all the conditions essential to its success.

’ One thing ought to be distinctly understood: the country cannot tolerate any new delays, or any repetition of old failures. This army must not sit down content with defending Washington, nor be held in check by exaggerated stories of the rebel strength, or by bad roads, inadequate supplies, or lack of transportation. Against all these contingencies the Government must make full and ample preparation. The country does not want excuses nor explanations; it demands success. It has waited long enough, and it has paid dearly enough for it. It is entitled to a vigorous, bold, and successful movement of its armies, and it demands this at the hands of its Commander in Chief. A military commander must always take some risks; he must always run the hazard of defeat in order to secure the possibility of success. In this case the risks are small, for the country has placed in the hands of the Government everything which can render success certain. This lavish and confiding generosity of the nation must no longer be abused.

George N. Saunders Feasted in Baltimore.

George N Saunders was entertained by Secessionists in Baltimore on the 14th of August. He came in the disguise of a released Union officer, and had with him copies of Jeff. Davis's Message, instructions to Rebel agents in Europe, and an earnest appeal to the European powers for a recognition of the Southern Confederacy. Saunders left for the North, and was assisted by the traitors of Baltimore including the authorities.--New York Post.

Treason in Illinois.

The Cairo correspondent of the Chicago Tribune fills over three columns of that paper with details of the objects and purposes of the Order known as Knights of the Golden Circle, as related in depositions made by certain initiated parties from which it appears that the organization is one of the blackest treason. The matter is in the hands of the Government, and if the charges are well founded, we have no doubt no time will be lost in arresting every member of the Order, wherever he may be found.

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