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Frederick city and Vicinity.

--Frederick City, the capital of Frederick county, Maryland, is situated two miles west of Monocracy river, forty-nine miles west of Baltimore. A branch railroad, three miles long, connects it with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is considered as the second city of the State in wealth and commercial importance, and is the third in population. The houses are generally built of brick or stone; the streets are wide and straight, crossing each other at right angles. The town contains a handsome court-house, churches for Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Methodist, Baptists, Gerthan Lutherans, German Calvinists and Roman Catholics; three banks and a Roman Catholic college and other seminaries, and several newspaper offices. If also has manufactories of iron, wool, paper, flour, ropes, and earthenware. The county is situated in the northern part of the State bordering on Pennsylvania, and has an area of 770 square miles. It is bounded on the southwest by the Potomac river, which separates it from Virginia, intersected by Monocracy river, and also drained by Cacoctin, Pipe, Linganore and Bennett's Creeks. The South Mountain, a continuation of the Blue Ridge of Virginia, forms the western boundary, and the surface is generally undulating. The soil in different parts is formed of decomposed limestone and slate, and is highly productive. Hay and butter are raised in this county to a greater extent than in any other part of the the State. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal traverses its southwest border. In 1860, the population numbered 46,576, of whom 3,243 were slaves.

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