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[from our own Reporter.]

Fredericksburg, April 12.
--I have received the Northern papers of the 10th, and also a Herald of the 8th, in which there is some interesting news. I send you a summary:

‘ The Philadelphia Press, of the 10th, has a flaming account of a conspiracy to overthrow the Government, under the heading, in large capitals; "Important Arrests and Astounding Disclosures — A Secret Treasonable Organization — The President of the United States to be Abducted — A Northwestern Confederacy Established, &c."

’ In a trial in Philadelphia, the affidavit of the U. S. Government Detective sets forth that organizations have been formed in Pennsylvania to resist the Conscription law under oath, denouncing the war as unholy and unjust. The Society is a sell lion strong; was first organized in the South; has grips and signs, and passwords. The obligation is said to be in favor of the abduction of Abraham Lincoln by force, if necessary; of a Northwest Confederacy, and resisting the Conscription act.--The prisoner denied the second oath. There was an open meeting at first. The witnesses testified that the object was resistance to the draft and a desire for a Peace Convention to settle the war; that Lincoln and the Cabinet had robbed the Treasury, and if there was only one shinplaster left they would go in to their elbows to get it. The war ought to be stopped; no more men ought to be killed; they would rather be killed at home, and if taken to Washington would go over to Jeff. Davis. The discharge of the prisoners was refused. The case was adjourned to the 4th of May, and witnesses balled.

In Reading, Pa., several hundred armed men assembled to rescue the prisoners supposed to be there. Large numbers were formed to reinforce them. Treason is taking an insurrectionary form.

Philadelphia was frightened lest the mob should march there. The Press says, on the subject of "Treason in Pennsylvania," that "the spirit of crime is not confined to the band in Berks county." The organization is "mightier than a million of men," but "must be overthrown before we can expect peace and triumph."

A dispatch from Vicksburg says: ‘"The advices are cheerful, and the health of the army improved. A new canal has been commenced, which runs into the river at New Carthage, and commences a mile above a point opposite the mouth of the Yazoo.--The Switzerland has been repaired and gone down the river with Farragut's fleet. He still holds the river between Vicksburg and Port Hudson."’

Banks proposes to make a grand move on Port Hudson with three days cooked rations.

From the army of the Cumberland dispatches say several rebels in United States uniform were summarily shot. The rebels have sought two of Wilder's men and "inhumanly shot" them. Wilder is said to have defeated Wharton, captured 80 prisoners and 100 horses, destroyed 5,000 bushels of wheat, brought away 150 negroes and two wagon loads tobacco, and destroyed the village of Sanisbury.

Foster, at Washington, N. C., is rumored surrendered, but it is not believed.

Hooker is giving great attention to his cavalry who paraded before Lincoln and his lady and company last Tuesday.

Gold in Philadelphia on the 9th closed at 148. In New York it closed at 147¾.

Two thousand five hundred bales of cotton arrived at New York from Liverpool on the 5th.

Everett has "spoken," and exhorts against all peace propositions, and favors the "subduing of the rebellion by force of arms."

French soldiers are said to be deserting and enlisting in the Mexican service.

Gold in New York on the 7th, according to the Herald, of the 8th, was 151¼, and Exchange 167½.

Great Democratic meeting in New York.

The most important news is the report of the "Democratic meeting on Tuesday night, in New York — the Petes Platform — Speeches by Fernando Wood, John S. Carlile, &c." The Hall of the Cooper Institute was crowded. No ladies were present. The resolutions read and adopted were as follows:

Resolved, That, as the expression of the sentiments of the conservative Democracy of the city of New York, we continue to oppose the policy of the National Administration as hostile to the restoration of the Union, as subversive of the Constitution, and as oppressive to the people. [Applause.]

Resolved, That, the several measures of the last Congress, adopted under pretexts of crushing the rebellion, are repugnant to every presage of justice, and calculated to strengthen the Southern States and permanently establish the so called Southern Confederacy.

Resolved, That the war, as conducted by this Administration, has been a failure. [Loud applause.] Whether designed or not, the immense resources of men and money, freely given by the people, have been dissipated and destroyed without accomplishing any favorable results.

Resolved, That, under there circumstances, we declare for peace. [Great cheering.] This Administration cannot conquer the South if they would, and would not if they could. Thus, war proving unsuccessful, we favor peace and conciliation as the only mode left to us to restore the Union.--Force, in the hands of our rulers, having accomplished nothing, we demand a change of measures — not for separation, but for restoration — and those who oppose are either mistaken zealots, or traitors without patriotism.

Resolved, That we call upon the Judiciary of the State of New York to sustain and vindicate the right of the people to the sacred and imprescripti- ble writ of habeas corpus, and to preserve the freedom of speech and of the press. * * *

Resolved, That we entreat the Republican Legislature, which has already tarnished the fair financial reputation of New York by a partial repudiation of payment in coin of the interest on our State debt not to further disgrace us by sanctioning the establishment, in violation of the spirit of our Constitution, of scores of United States banks among us, and the plunder of the people by the issue of hundreds of millions more of irredeemable and valueless paper money.

Resolved, That we observe rather with a feeling of relief than with resentment the occasional secession, one by one, of disappointed leaders from our political ranks to those of the Abolition party; that we denounce the "Loyal League" movement as a "base invention" of the enemy; that the terms "loyal" and " disloyal" are not American, are not appropriate to our institutions, and had been discountenanced in this country since the proclamation of Cornwallis, Howe, and Burgoyna, until revived by Abraham Lincoln. [Applause.]

Fernando Wood spoke first, and said the public man who fails to meet the responsibilities which the crisis demands is either too timid for his position or recreant to the people. [Applause.] He is either a coward or something worse, and in either case unfit for public confidence. At this moment there are two revolutions against the Government--one at the South with the sword, and the other at the North by executive and legislative usurpations. [Applause.] The latter enemy, more stealthy, is unfortunately is possession of the Government. Taking advantage of the popular enthusiasm in behalf of the Union, it has, under the pretext of furthering this holy object, gradually fastened the chains of slavery upon the people. The war is supported by--1st. The whole banking interests of the country. 2d. New England, which has the army in place of its lost customers, the South. 3d. The railroad interests. 4th. The debtor class, who hope to make by speculations. 5th. The Abolition fanatics. 6th. The office holders and contractors, the largest army we have. 7th. The members of the Administration, who hope to perpetuate their authority for another term, if not for life. 8th. The Republican partizans. 9th. The war Democrats. 10th. Some honest men, who really think the Union can be restored by fighting. 11th. The army, with its thousands of retainers.

Is it not a terrific combination to confront? But, as great as it is, the power of the people is still greater. [Applause.] So long as the ballot shall be permitted, let us fear not. If asked what a Democratic President should do: He should cease hostilities and take a step towards the ascertainment whether a conference could be obtained.--This could be done either openly and officially or privately and unofficially. I do not say that there should be a Convention. Negotiations might lead to one. If you say the South would insist on negotiating for her independence, I answer, who can say what the South would or would not do under the existing circumstances?

Hon. John S. Carlile, of Virginia, followed, and spoke of the insanity of any man supposing the South can ever be conquered. In his opinion it can only end in the thorough exhaustion of both sides. He was anxious to address them as fellow-citizens, but he had been declared to be a foreigner by a recognized supporter of the Administration. (Sutler,). He spoke of the rights of the States, and said the war was a war for a boundary line, and not for a restoration of the Union. New York has it in her power to-day to end this strife.

Mr. Williams, of South Carolina, began an inaudible speech by saying he had left a military despotism in the South, and regretted that he had got into another. He found little respect paid to the Constitution. He took three days to see the President, and then he threatened with a gunboat.--[Loud laughter.] He found the President had no idea whatever of re- establishing the Union.

Judge McCune said he had changed his mind as to this war. A countryman of his was crawling into an orchard, when the farmer put his foot on his head. "Where are you going?" said the farmer. "I am going back," said the Irishman. [Loud laughter.] Like him, I am going back, and now feel it my duty to protect against this war so far as it has gone.

The woman mob in Richmond.

The following is the heading of the account, in the New York Herald, of the 8th, of the mob robberies in Richmond:

‘ "Important News — Serious Bread Riot in Richmond--Three Thousand Armed Women Attack the Government and Private Stores--The Militia Ordered Out, but Fail to Restore Order — Jeff. Davis and other Officials Speak to the Women and Restore Peace." --All this, in large capitals, the Herald publishes from a prisoner exchanged, and declares is very significant of the condition to which rebeldom is reduced, and therefore dire distress must exist in the other States which grow cotton.

’ The Tribune has a flourishing account of a great "Bread Riot in Richmond," for the particulars of which it is indebted to Col. Stewart, of the 22d Indiana regiment, an U. S. officer just released by the Confederates. Col. S. says he witnessed the riot from his prison window. The rioters were composed of 3,000 women, who were armed. They broke open the Government and private stores, and took bread, clothing, and whatever else they wanted. The militia were ordered out to check the riot, but failed to go. Jeff. Davis and other high officials made speeches to the infuriated women, and told them they should have what they wanted, when they became calm.

Dispatches from Nashville say that Gen. Mitchell, with 350 cavalry, went to Green Hill, and, dashing into a rebel camp, where there was a large number of conscripts, on the sabre charge, he took fifteen prisoners, killed five, and captured all their arms and equipments.

Rosecrans's dispatches to the War Department, of Monday, state that General Stanly completely whipped the rebel guerillas of Morgan at Snow Hill, capturing about fifty prisoners and three hundred horses.

The Liverpool Albien, of the 19th of March, says there is a large emigration of strong active young men, chiefly Irish, for New York, supposed to be recruits for the Federal army.

A great meeting, for the suffering poor of Ireland, was held Tuesday evening at the Academy of Music. There was an enthusiastic demonstration in honor of McClellan, who was present and made a speech.

The Herald says editorially that Seymour's defeat in Connecticut "strengthens the hands of the Government, the unity of the loyal States, and our brave volunteers in the field," and proves "that the vigorous prosecution of the war is the prominent idea among the people of all parties."

The President and the party who accompanied him to the army of the Potomac on Saturday will return on Tuesday or Wednesday.

A dispatch from Hartford says: ‘"We have returns from every town in the State except Hampton.--The voted — Buckingham 38,304; Seymour, 25,836, Buckingham's majority will be 2,500. The Senate stands 14 Union and 7 Democrats. The House 119 Union and 94 Democrats, with two towns a tie.--For Congress — Deming, Frendegee, and Hubbard, (Union,) and English (Democrat) are elected."’

The municipal elections in Maine, Missouri, Kansas, and Ohio, have gone for the Republicans. In Columbus, Ohio, the Democratic Mayor and Council were elected.

The business of the Sub-Treasury Tuesday was:

Receipts for customs101,000.00

A telegram from New Orleans states that the rebels had begun to evacuate Port Hudson. [The Herald thinks this somewhat premature.]

It is reported that Admiral Porter had been killed on board the gunboat Lafayette in an engagement before Vicksburg. [Not credited.]

From Memphis it is said two important secret expeditions "are under way."

No progress has been made in the reduction of Fort Greenwood [Fort Pemberton.] It is the opinion of well informed officers that our gunboats will not succeed in taking the place.

The town of Florence is reported shelled and rebel cavalry driven away.

A dispatch from Hooker's army says:

‘ There are indications of the receipt of unfavorable news by the rebels. They refuse to exchange newspapers.

’ [Newspapers with reports about Charleston were sent to day. Doubtless the news will be considered "unfavorable" by the Federals.]

Lincoln's fasting and Prayer proclamation.

Lincoln has issued the following proclamation for a day of "National Prayer and Humiliation:"

Whereas, the Senate of the United States, devoutly recognizing the supreme authority and just government of Almighty God in all the affairs of men and of nations, has, by a resolution, requested the President to designate and set apart a day for national prayer and humiliation; and,

Whereas, it is the duty of nations, as well as of men, to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God, to confess their sins and transgressions in humble sorrow, yet with assured hope that genuine repentance will lead to mercy and pardon, and to recognize the sublime truths announced in the Holy Scriptures, and proven by all history, that these nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord;

And, inasmuch as we know that by His divine law nations, like individuals, are subjected to punishments and chastisements in this world, may we not justly fear that the awful calamity of civil war, which now desolates the land, may be but a punishment inflicted upon us for our presumptuous sins, to the needful end of our national reformation as a whole people? We have been the recipients of the choicest bounties of heaven, we have been preserved, these many years, in peace and prosperity; we have grown in numbers, wealth, and power, as no other nation has ever grown. But we have forgotten God, we have forgotten the gracious hand which preserved us in peace, and multiplied, and enriched, and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts, that all these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving grace — too proud to pray to the God that made us!

It behooved us, then, to humble ourselves before the offended Power, to confess our national sins, and to pray for clemency and forgiveness.

Now, therefore, in compliance with the request, and fully concurring in the views of the Senate, I do, by this my proclamation, designate and set apart Thursday, the 20th day of April, 1863, as a day of national humiliation, fasting and prayer.--And I do hereby request all the people to abstain on that day from their ordinary secular pursuits, and to unite, at their several places of public worship and their respective homes, in keeping the day holy to the Lord, and devoted to the humble discharge of the religious duties proper to that solemn occasion.

All this being done, in sincerity and truth, let us then rest humbly in the hope, authorized by the Divine teachings that the united cry of the Nation will be heard on high, and answered with blessings no less than the pardon of our national sins, and restoration of our divided and suffering country to its former happy condition of unity and peace.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto ret my hand and cause the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington this 13th day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and of the independence of the United States the eighty seventh.

Abraham Lincoln.
By the President: Wm. H. Seward, Sec'y of State.

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