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The Latest from Chickamauga.

The Marietta Confederate, of the 28th ult., has the following:

A quartermaster's sergeant of a Texas brigade, who left the extreme front yesterday morning, gives us sundry interesting items. He says that Chattanooga is closely invested by our troops, who are so well fortified that one half of our forces can defy the whole of Rosecrans' army. Our lines extend from the river, below the city, along the side of Lookout Mountain, at an elevation a little above the tops of the trees and sufficient to command a view of the enemy's lines, and at the distance of about a mile from the enemy's outer line, and pass around to Missionary Ridge, and thence to the river above the city, ranging from one to two miles in distance from the enemy's lines. Our fortifications consist of heavy logs, rails and stones covered with earth, and about breast high, except at some points mounted by cannon, where the earthworks are heavier. The enemy are also well fortified, having an inner line of strong fortifications and an outer one of rifle pits for sharpshooters. The inner line embraces the square fort thrown up by Gen. Bragg off an elevation South of the town, in which were two 32 pounders, which were spiked and abandoned, but the enemy, had unspiked and had put them in position in the fort. They have also a fortification on the north side of the river, from which they could enfilade our line on the left in case of its advance into the valley or plain below. --Some of our sharpshooters had their rifle pits in 300 yards of the enemy. Longstreet's corps now occupy the position on the left, near the base of Lookout Mountain, Hill's next, Buckner's next, and Polk's the extreme right.

Our informant, who belonged to Longstreet's corps, says that on Friday evening last, near night, the enemy made a demonstration on our left with one piece of artillery, supported by two regiments of infantry, and fired grape upon our lines. Two South Carolina regiments, of Hood's division, (which occupies the extreme left,) advanced to meet them, and were fired upon by a body of sharpshooters, masked at the distance of ten steps, losing five or six men killed. Skirmishing of this kind is frequent, and the fire of sharpshooters, on either side, incessant.

On Friday four scouts of Ector's Texas brigade, Hood's division, fired on a flat boat filled with Yankees. Fifteen of them jumped into the river and were drowned, twenty two and one negro surrendered and were brought off, and three escaped by swimming to the north bank. They complained of short rations, and said they were boating provisions from across the river. On Saturday the same scouts captured five Yankees eight miles below Chattanooga, engaged in killing hogs. They professed to belong to Crittenden's corps, and said that they were starving, had not been in the fight, and had no stomach for it.

All the prisoners — some of them field officers — with whom our informant had conversed admitted that they had been badly defeated, but said that they would whip us the next time. They admit that in the attack by Longstreet's and Hill's corps on Rosecrans's centre, composed of their heaviest crack corps — Crittenden's and Thomas's — these two corps lost fully one half of their men.

On Friday night last, Wheeler's and Forrest's cavalry left under orders, crossing the river, provided with ten days rations.

Our informant says that among the pieces of ordnance captured we have several line Napoleon and 20 pounder Parrott guns. He says we can easily shell any part of the enemy's lines. We had thrown shell to the railroad depots, made a body of Yankees scamper away from the fan yard between the city and Lookout Mountain, and scattered another body at the enemy's wagon yard across the river. This was done with 10 pounder Parrott guns on Lookout. One of the 20 pounders had burst.

The enemy have a pontoon bridge across the river immediately opposite Chattanooga, and, prisoners say, a trestle bridge higher up.

In addition to the foregoing statements, which our informant vouches for as ascertained facts, he says it was reported, on what was deemed reliable authority, that Forrest captured, on Thursday last, 240 supply wagons, containing 14 barrels of flour each, and 164 ordnance wagons, filled with ammunition, and took a number of prisoners, who were made to drive the wagons into our lines. Another officer told us that he saw 40 wagons, which were captured by Wheeler on Tuesday last, containing quartermasters' stores in great variety, and among them quartermasters' papers and a large lot of horse shoes.

A letter from Dalton, Ga., to the Atlanta Intelligencer, dated the 28th, says:

‘ In the first place, there is no probability of a speedy encounter with Rosy's army for some days. Both armies confront each other, our pickets being within a few hundred yards of the enemy's. Our army lies in a valley forming a semi circle, extending on the left from the base of Lookout Mountain to that of Missionary Ridge on the right.--From the heights of the latter ridge, some 900 feet high, a commanding view is presented of the valley and town of Chattanooga, and of Walden's Ridge, on the opposite side of the Tennessee. The enemy's position is very strong and well fortified, they taking advantage of the works we had constructed, besides having since erected three lines of entrenchments fronting South. A large encampment of the enemy is plainly to be seen on the opposite side of the river, and it is supposed that there is not a force of over 15,000 troops in the town, which is sufficient to hold it against great odds. As we hold Lookout Mountain and command the Nashville and Chattanooga Road to Bridgeport, the enemy's communication is cut off for obtaining supplies, except by the rugged road across Walden's Ridge, across the river and opposite the town. He is no doubt forced to send a heavy escort with all his trains for fear of being cut off by our cavalry, which is said to be already in his rear. To attempt to carry Chattanooga by storm at this time would only be attended with great cost of life, and therefore we will no doubt resort to strategy for its accomplishment.

Last night the enemy pressed down on our pickets, when a heavy skirmish ensued, but which lasted but a few moments, the enemy being driven back and badly punished.

Col. J. P. Jones, Inspector General, and Capt. Wm.Reid, of Gen. Bragg's staff, proceeded to the enemy's lines this morning with a flag of truce to arrange the exchange of wounded prisoners, at the instance of Rosecrans. The flag was met by Col. Jos. C. McKibben, Capt. D. G. Swain, Lieut. M. J. Kelly, and Surgeon Perrin, Medical Inspector, all of Rosecrans's staff. The preliminary arrangements were made conditionally on our part. The Yankee officers were full of chat and anxious to converse but our officers were very reserved.

McKibben was formerly a member of Congress from California, and voted upon the Southern side of the Kansas question.

Henry Roberts, formerly of Co. K., 26th Tennessee, who deserted at Tullahoma on the 1st of July last, and afterwards enlisted in the enemy's ranks, and was captured at the late battle, lighting against us, was executed this morning for desertion. The whole of Stewart's division was ordered out to witness the execution.

’ The Atlanta Appeal, in an article on the probability of Burnside reaching Rosecrans, says:

‘ That he had not effected a junction with Rosecrans up to Sunday evening, appears to be the general belief. We have met a gentleman who left the river, some distance above Harrison's landing, on Friday, who informs as that a small force of his command had made their appearance in that vicinity, but nothing was heard of any considerable body. It he attempts to reach Chattanooga on the south side of the river, he will certainly be compelled to run a dangerous gauntlet, of which he must be aware, consequently he may be looked for, if at all, from the north side.

Our information also leads us to believe his strength has been greatly exaggerated.--He certainly cannot strengthen the beleaguered forces at Chattanooga to the extent that has been feared. The operations of General Jones in upper East Tennessee will employ several thousands of his force, and by garrisoning the several gaps and towns and keeping open his line of communications, his corps will be necessarily still further reduced. We do not believe he can add ten thousand to the dispirited army of the Cumberland, or one third of its loss in the recent fight.

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Rosecrans (6)
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