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Austria and the United States.

--The Cincinnati Times publishes and extract from a private letter received by a citizen of that city from a gentleman of Vienna, Austria, which discloses a new reason why Maximilian was induced to accept the throne of Mexico. The writer of the letter, says the Times, has from his position rare opportunities to ascertain diplomatic secrets:

Vienna, August 20, 1863.--I can also give you a little political information, which may interest you Americans. You may remember the Kostza affair, and the so-called Hulseman letter. The Austrian Government has never forgotten nor forgiven the insult then offered to her flag and her diplomatic representative. The insult was given to Austria, she thinks, because her naval power was small, and because she had no efficient means to resent it, and therefore had to pocket it. They believe here that the United States would not have done so to either France or England.

When the first overture for the Mexican throne came to Maximilian, who, as you know, represents the little Austrian navy, the offer was accompanied by a suggestion from the French Government that the acceptance of the Mexican throne would, in the course of events, give its Emperor an opportunity to revenge the wanton insult to Austria's naval flag. Maximilian is said to have been captivated by the idea and the train of reflections it involved, and to have made the remark: "We will yet be even with the braggart nation" My informant is likely to be well informed, and, I must say, it would indeed be strange if, eventually, Austria would in this round about way take up the gauntlet years ago thrown down to her.

I am also informed that Secretary Seward has indicated to the Austrian Government that Lincoln's administration does not hold to the position then assumed by the Webster-Hulseman letter, and that persons having only their first papers will not hereafter be regarded as citizens of the United States. I doubt whether this declaration has been given by Seward in the formal manner which would appease the offended pride of Austria.

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