General Beauregard to the President. Sherman marched into and took possession of Columbia last Friday morning, our troops withdrawing from the city just as his forces crossed the Broad river, several miles above. We have just now no means of ascertaining the amount of Government property necessarily left to fall into the hands of the enemy. We, however, know that for more than a week the removal from the place of Government stores and other property has been pushed forward with all possible dispatch, which gives us reason to hope that the most valuable portion had been gotten away in safety. We had there, it seems, a quantity of medical stores, one half of which were brought off, the rest destroyed by our authorities, their removal being found impracticable. It was reported on Saturday that the Treasury Note Lithograph Establishment had been left behind. This the Treasury authorities here state to be incorrect.--They state that the whole establishment, plates, paper and furniture, were brought North thirty-six hours before the occupation of the place by the Yankees.--The female employees in the Treasury Department, as we stated on Saturday, got off to Charlotte, North Carolina, several days before the advent of Sherman. Some of them, whose homes are here, have arrived in this city. Most of them, we understand, saved their baggage, but lost their furniture. It will be recollected that when Mr. Memminger, then Secretary of the Treasury, carried these ladies to South Carolina for safety, and to lessen the demand for food in Richmond, he permitted each of them to carry a bed, some chairs and other furniture. These household articles now swell the list of Sherman's trophies. We expressed the opinion on Saturday that Sherman's next step from Columbia would be in the direction of Florence, South Carolina, the junction of the Wilmington and Manchester railroad with the railroad running north from Charleston, that point being in the rear both of Wilmington and Charleston; but we have now, however, reason to believe that his main column will advance directly north towards Charlotte, North Carolina, and will content himself with striking the railroad at Florence with his cavalry. This last plan he may be prevented from executing by the activity and address of General Hampton. It is necessary to his safety that he should move, as he has done hitherto, with his army well massed. A strict adherence to this policy has prevented our numerically inferior forces from giving him battle. They have been obliged, by the sheer weight of his columns, to fall back as he advanced, but they have done so in good order, and have kept up a continual and severe skirmish with his vanguard. Under all the circumstances, we will not venture a prediction as to where our troops will find it practicable to make a determined stand. We feel assured, however, that General Beauregard will let slip no opportunity which may present itself of striking the enemy a telling blow, and believe he will risk much upon such a chance. The last Columbia papers received estimate Sherman's force at fifty-five thousand men. They also state that Sherman enforces strict discipline and punishes with the utmost severity any of his troops who are guilty of outrages upon citizens.
The latest Official intelligence.Official intelligence was received at the War Office last night that Sherman was, on yesterday morning, advancing towards, and was near Winnsboro', a point on the railroad leading to Charlotte, and thirty miles north of Columbia. Charlotte is about one hundred miles north of Columbia. Salisbury, where is established the Confederate penitentiary, is forty miles north of Charlotte. Across the country, due east, Raleigh is one hundred miles from Salisbury.
Wilmington. The report was without foundation. Colonel Hatch, one of our commissioners of exchange, has gone to Wilmington, at which place he will, during this week, exchange ten thousand prisoners. We may remark here that the exchange of prisoners on James river will, at the same time, go on uninterruptedly. It was reported in Kinston on the 13th that the enemy were preparing to make a heavy movement on Weldon, up the Roanoke river. There are now ten gunboats at Newbern.