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From Washington.

Washington, December 16.
--In the United States Supreme Court yesterday, argument was commenced in the case of the application of Mr. A. H. Garland, of Arkansas, a pardoned rebel, to be allowed to practice in said Court without taking the oath prescribed by act of Congress. The question involved is the constitutionality of the oath, which requires every applicant for admission to the bar of a United States court to swear that he never voluntarily aided in the rebellion. Mr. M. H. Carpenter, counsel for Mr. Garland, took the ground that the President's pardon restores his client to all his former rights, and that this bar to his entry into national courts as a practitioner is therefore unconstitutional. Attorney-General Speed replied, maintaining the constitutionality of the oath. The argument was listened to with much interest by a large assemblage of legal gentlemen. It will be continued on Friday next.

The Cabinet meeting yesterday was long and important, lasting until 3 o'clock. General Grant was present. It is understood that the matter of the reorganization of the army was considered.

Horace Maynard being asked what he thought of the prospects of the Tennessee delegation since the last action of the House, said he thought Thaddeus Stevens had the whole Southern Confederacy in his breeches pocket, and meant to keep it there for a good while.

It is reported that General Butler, who is now in this city, is soon to uncork the several vials of his wrath upon the head of the Lieutenant-General.

Commodore Brashear writes the Navy Department from Callao that the Peruvian Government has determined to make common cause with Chili in resisting the aggression of Spain.

Strong pressure is being brought to bear to induce Logan to reconsider his declination and accept the Mexican mission.

Advices received to-day state that the Liberal cause is in the ascendant in all parts of the country. Imperial troops are deserting in large numbers.

The Committee on Appropriations hold daily sessions. They have an economical fit, and are cutting down estimates fearfully.

A meeting of Senators and Representatives from the South has been held. They have come to the conclusion that Congress does not intend to admit them this session. They therefore intend to go home immediately.

The friends of Marshall O. Roberts declare that he has been offered the New York Collectorship.

Large numbers of Senators and Representatives were at the President's house this morning. Parties who are interested assert positively that the President has given orders in the various departments to make no more appointments for the present, wishing to see what course Congress will pursue on the reconstruction question.

The people of this city are so afraid of negro suffrage that they are petitioning Congress to take away the charter altogether, and govern by a commission.

The House Judiciary Committee yesterday agreed to a bill which strikes the word "white" from the charter wherever it appears.

The Ways and Means Committee do not contemplate a reduction of the currency at present.

The weather is more moderate to-day.

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