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Isidorus Origines V, 26, 7: Dolus1 is the mental cunning on the part of the deceiver: for he does one thing and pretends another. Petronius takes a different view when he says, “What is a wrong (dolus), gentlemen? It occurs whenever anything offensive to the law is done. You understand what a wrong is: now take damage. . .”

1 Dolus originally meant a device without moral connotation; hence the legal term for fraud was dolus malus, and the use of dolus alone in a bad sense is later.

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