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[104] Further every kind of case will contain a cause, a point for the decision of the judge, and a central argument.1 For nothing can be said which does not contain a reason, something to which the decision of the judge is directed, and finally something which, more than aught else, contains the substance of the matter at issue. But as these vary in different cases and are as a rule explained by writers on judicial causes, I will postpone them to the appropriate portion of my work. For the present I shall follow the order which I prescribed by my division2 of causes into three classes. [p. 465]

VII. I will begin with the class of causes which are concerned with praise and blame. This class appears to have been entirely divorced by Aristotle,3 and following him by Theophrastus, from the practical side of oratory (which they call πραγματικῇ,) and to have been reserved solely for the delectation of audiences, which indeed is shown to be its peculiar function by its name, which implies display.4

1 For discussion of these technical terms see chap. xi.

2 Chaps. iii. and iv.

3 Rhet. 1358 b. 2.

4 sc. ἐπιδεικτική.

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