Cicero1 again in his Rhetorica makes the
number of bases to be four, namely those concerned
with fact, names, kinds, and legal action, that is to say
conjecture is concerned with fact, definition with
names, quality with kinds, and law with action:
under this latter head of law he included questions of competence. But in another passage he
treats2 legal questions as a species of action.
Some writers have held that there are five bases:
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