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[2] Roman usage on the other hand has given it a place in the practical tasks of life. For funeral orations are often imposed as a duty on persons holding public office, or entrusted to magistrates by decree of the senate. Again the award of praise or blame to a witness may carry weight in the courts, while it is also a recognised practice to produce persons to praise the character of the accused. Further the published speeches of Cicero directed against his rivals in the election to the consulship,1 and against Lucius Piso, Clodius and Curio,2 are full of denunciation, and were notwithstanding delivered in the senate as formal expressions of opinion in the course of debate.

1 The speech was known as in Toga Candida. Only fragments survive.

2 The in Pisonem survives, the in Clodium et Curionem, to which he refers again (v. x. 92), is lost.

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load focus Introduction (Harold Edgeworth Butler, 1920)
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