Such are the methods by which we may
defend an act. If it is impossible to defend an
act either on its merits or with the assistance of
arguments from without, the next best course will
be to shift the charge, if possible, to another.
It is for this reason that the basis
been held to apply even to those who cannot
plead the letter of the law in this connexion.1
some cases, then, the blame will be thrown on a
person: for example, Gracchus, when accused of
making the treaty with the Numantines (and it was
fear of this accusation that seems to have led him
to bring forward the democratic laws of his tribuneship) may plead that he made it as the representative of his commander-in-chief.