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[9] It is a comparison when I say that a man did something like a lion, it is a metaphor when I say of him, He is a lion. Metaphors fall into four classes. In the first we substitute one living thing for another, as in the passage where the poet, speaking of a charioteer,1 says,
“The steersman then
With mighty effort wrenched his charger round.
or when Livy2 says that Scipio was continually barked at by Cato.

1 Probably from Ennius.

2 Liv. XXXVIII. liv.

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