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[106] To these Rutilius or Gorgias add ἀναγκαῖον that is, the representation of the necessity of a thing, ἀνάμνησις or reminding, ἀνθυποφορά that is, replying to anticipated objections, ἀντίῤῥησις or refutation, παραύξησις or amplification, προέκθεσις which means pointing out what ought to have been done, and then what actually has been done, ἐναντιότης, or arguments from opposites1 (whence we get enthymemes styled κατ᾽ ἐναντίωσιν), and even μετάληψις, which Hermagoras considers a basis.2 Visellius, although he makes the number of figures but small, includes among them the enthymeme, which he calls commentum, and the epicheireme, which he calls ratio.3 This view is also partially accepted by Celsus, who is in doubt whether consequence is not to be identified with the epicheireme.

1 See IX. iii. 90. For enthymemes κατ᾽ ἐνατίωσιν, see v. xiv. 2. and note on ex pugnantibus, Vol. II. p. 524.

2 See III. vi. 46. The term is not used here in the same sense as in VIII. vi. 37, but rather = translatio, see III. vi. 23. Lit. translatio means “transference of the charge”: the sense is virtually the same as that of exceptio (a plea made by defendant in bar of plaintiffs action). “Competence” is perhaps the least unsatisfactory rendering.

3 See note on v. xiv. 5, Vol. II. p. 524.

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