THE expression that I quoted above from Quintus Claudius, 1 “On account of his great size and savage aspect (facies),” I have inquired into by examining several old manuscripts, and have found it to be as I wrote it. For it was in that way, as a rule, that the early writers declined the word—facies facies— whereas the rule of grammar now requires faciei as the genitive. But I did find some corrupt manuscripts in which faciei was written, with erasure of the former reading. I remember too having found both facies and facii written in the same manuscript of Claudius 2 in the library at Tibur. But facies was written in the text and facii, with double i, in the margin opposite; nor did I regard that as inconsistent with a certain early usage; for from the nominative dies they used both dies and dii as the genitive, and from fames, both famis and fami. [p. 201] Quintus Ennius, in the sixteenth book of his Annals, wrote dies for diei in the following verse: 3
Caused by the distant time of the last day (dies).Caesellius asserts that Cicero also wrote dies for diei in his oration For Publius Sestius, and after sparing no pains and inspecting several old manuscripts, I found Caesellius to be right. These are the words of Marcus Tullius: 4 “But the knights shall pay the penalty for that day (dies).” As a result, I readily believe those who have stated that they saw a manuscript from Virgil's own hand, in which it was written: 5
When Libra 6 shall make like the hours of day (dies) and sleep,where dies is used for diei. But just as in this place Virgil evidently wrote dies, so there is no doubt that he wrote dii for diei in the following line: 7
As gifts for that day's (dii) merriment,where the less learned read dei, 8 doubtless shrinking from the use of so uncommon a form. But the older writers declined dies dii, as they did fames fami, pernicies pernicii, progenies progenii, luxuries luxurii, acies acii. For Marcus Cato in his oration On the Punic War wrote as follows: 9 “The women and children were driven out because of the famine (fami causa).” Lucilius in his twelfth book has: 10
Wrinkled and full of hunger (fami).[p. 203] Sisenna in the sixth book of his History writes: 11 “That the Romans came for the purpose of dealing destruction (pernicii).” Pacuvius in the Paulus says: 12
O sire supreme of our own race's (progenii) sire.Gnaeus Matius in the twenty-first book of his Iliad: 13
The army's (acii) other part the river's wave had shunned.Again Matius in Book xxiii writes: 14
Or bides in death some semblance of a form (specii）Gaius Gracchus, On the Publishing of the Laws has: 15 “They say that those measures were taken because of luxury (luxurii casaa）” and farther on in the same speech we find: “What is necessarily provided to sustain life is not luxury (luxuries),” which shows that he used luxurii as the genitive of luxuries. Marcus Tullius also has left pernicii on record, in the speech in which he defended Sextus Roscius. These are his words: 16 “We think that none of these things was produced by divine will for the purpose of dealing destruction (pernicii), but by the very force and greatness of Nature.” We must therefore suppose that Quadrigarius wrote either facies or facii as the genitive; but I have not found the reading facie in any ancient manuscript. But in the dative case those who spoke the best Latin did not use the form faciei, which is now current, but facie. For example, Lucilius in his Satires: 17
Of those who speak no more.
Which first is joined to a fair face[p. 205] And in his seventh book: 18
Who loves you, and who to your youth and charms (facie),However, there are not a few who read facii in both these passages of Lucilius. But Gaius Caesar, in the second book of his treatise On Analogy, 19 thinks that we should use die and specie as genitive forms. I have also found die in the genitive case in a manuscript of Sallust's Jugurtha of the utmost trustworthiness and of venerable age. These were the words: 20 “when scarcely a tenth part of the day (die) was left.” For I do not think we ought to accept such a quibble as the assertion that die is used for ex die.
Plays courtier, promising to be your friend.