1. The first Artaxerxes,1 preeminent among the kings of Persia for gentleness and magnanimity, was surnamed Longimanus, because his right hand was longer than his left, and was the son of Xerxes; the second Artaxerxes,2 the subject of this Life, was surnamed Memor, or Mindful, and was the grandson of the first by his daughter Parysatis. For Dareius3 and Parysatis had four sons—an eldest, Artaxerxes, and next to him Cyrus, and after these Ostanes and Oxathres. [2] Cyrus took his name from Cyrus of old,4 who, as they say, was named from the sun; for ‘Cyrus’ is the Persian word for sun. Artaxerxes was at first called Arsicas; although Deinon gives the name as Oarses. But it is unlikely that Ctesias, even if be has put into his work a perfect farrago of extravagant and incredible tales, should be ignorant of the name of the king at whose court he lived as physician to the king's wife and mother and children.

1 Artaxerxes I. 465-425 B.C. The parallel form Artaxerxes has become fixed in English.

2 Artaxerxes II. 404-362 B.C.

3 Dareius II. 424-404 B.C.

4 Cyrus the Elder, 559-529 B.C.

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