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Hence it is not unreasonable to say that the statement of each person individually is not right, but that the statement of all collectively is right; for it is not drought nor wind nor sea nor darkness,1 but everything harmful and destructive that Nature contains, which is to be set down as a part of Typhon. The origins of the universe are not to be placed in inanimate bodies, according to the doctrine of Democritus and Epicurus, nor yet is the Artificer of undifferentiated matter, according to the Stoic doctrine,2 one Reason, and one Providence which gains the upper hand and prevails over all things. The fact is that it is impossible for anything bad whatsoever to be engendered where God is the Author of all, or anything good where God is the Author of nothing ; for the concord of the universe, like that of a lyre or bow, according to Heracleitus,3 is resilient if disturbed ; and according to Euripides,4
The good and bad cannot be kept apart,
But there is some commingling, which is well.

Wherefore this very ancient opinion comes dowTn from writers on religion and from lawgivers to poets and philosophers ; it can be traced to no source, but it carried a strong and almost indelible conviction, and is in circulation in many places among barbarians and Greeks alike, not only in story and tradition but also [p. 111] in rites and sacrifices, to the effect that the Universe is not of itself suspended aloft without sense or reason or guidance, nor is there one Reason which rules and guides it by rudders, as it were, or by controlling reins,5 but, inasmuch as Nature brings, in this life of ours, many experiences in which both evil and good are commingled, or better, to put it very simply, Nature brings nothing which is not combined with something else, we may assert that it is not one keeper of two great vases6 who, after the manner of a barmaid, deals out to us our failures and successes in mixture, but it has come about, as the result of two opposed principles and two antagonistic forces, one of which guides us along a straight course to the right, while the other turns us aside and backward, that our life is complex, and so also is the universe ; and if this is not true of the whole of it, yet it is true that this terrestrial universe, including its moon as well, is irregular and variable and subject to all manner of changes. For if it is the law of Nature that nothing comes into being without a cause, and if the good cannot provide a cause for evil, then it follows that Nature must have in herself the source and origin of evil, just as she contains the source and origin of good.

1 Cf. 364 a, supra, and 376 f, infra.

2 Cf. von Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, ii. p. 1108, and Diogenes Laertius, vii. 134.

3 Cf. Diels, Frag. der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 87, no. b 51. Plutarch quotes this again in Moralia, 473 f and 1026 b.

4 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, no. 21, from the Aeolus; quoted again in Moralia, 25 c and 474 a.

5 The language is reminiscent of a fragment of Sophocles quoted by Plutarch in Moralia, 767 e, and Life of Alexander, chap. vii. (668 b). Cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Sophocles, no. 785. ‘A task for many reins and rudders too’ (πολλῶν χαλινῶν ἔργον οἰάκων θ᾽ ἅμα).

6 The reference is to Homer, Il. xxiv. 527-528, as misquoted in Plato, Republic, 379 d. Cf. also Moralia, 24 a (and the note), 105 c (and the ntoe), and 473 b. Moralia, 600 c, is helpful in understanding the present passage.

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