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As for wine, those who serve the god in Heliopolis bring none at all into the shrine, since they feel that it is not seemly to drink in the day-time while their Loi'd and King is looking upon them.1 The others use wine, but in great moderation. They have many periods of holy living when wine is prohibited, and in these they spend their time exclusively in studying, learning, and teaching religious matters. Their kings also were wont to drink a limited quantity2 prescribed by the sacred writings, as Hecataeus3 has recorded ; and the kings are priests. The beginning of their drinking dates from the reign of Psammetichus ; before that they did not drink wine nor use it in libation as something dear to the gods, thinking it to be the blood of those who had once battled against the gods, and from whom, when they had fallen and had become commingled with the earth, they believed vines to have sprung. This is the reason why drunkenness drives men out of their senses and crazes them, inasmuch as they are then filled with the blood of their forbears. These tales Eudoxus says in the second book of his World Travels are thus related by the priests. [p. 19]

1 Cf. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 97 and 98, who says that the Pythagoreans would have nothing to do with wine in the day-time. See also the critical note on the opposite page.

2 Cf. Diodorus, i. 70. 11.

3 Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, ii. p. 153, Hecataeus no. B 11.

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