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[i] Trimeters

12Archilochus, however, clearly knows of their destruction when he says:

I bewail the misfortunes of Thasos, not of Magnesia.

Strabo Geography [on the Magnesians]

“But we, like Archilochus, who disregards the wheat-lands and vineyards of Thasos and reproaches the island for being so rugged and mountainous, saying:

but this isle stands like the backbone of an ass, crowned with savage wood;

even so, I say, we think only of one part of exile, its disgrace, and disregard the tranquillity, leisure, and freedom of it.

Plutarch Exile:

3And the poet Archilochus is greatly struck with the blessedness of the country of the Sirites; contrasting it favourably with Thasos he says:

for there's no country so rich or desirable or lovely as the banks of the Siris.

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner

“And then, being about to enjoy but a short span of life, he does what was done later by Archilochus, who when his sister's husband perished at sea was deeply affected and would not write a line, saying to those who urged him to devote himself to his compositions:

and I care neither for iambi nor for rejoicings;

but when he was tired of vain tears, said: (fr. 13).

Tzetzes [on the Iliad Bk. 24]

“Didymus claims this for Aeschylus, but it really occurs in Archilochus, thus:

with their lives in the arms of the waves

Scholiast on Aristophanes [‘in the arms of the waves’]
4This expression is used of those who run too great risks where the danger is other people's. The Carians appear to have been the first mercenaries ... Archilochus thus employs it:

and I shall be called a soldier of fortune like a Carian.

Scholiast on Plato Laches [‘You must mind you are not “putting the risk on the Carian” but on your sons’]
5With regard to the ‘character’ in which a thing is said, since there are some things which if you said them of yourself would be invidious or tedious or provocative of contradiction, and if you said them of another would be slanderous or impolite, such things should be put into another's mouth, as is done by Isocrates in the Philip and in the Exchange, and by Archilochus, who in his censure makes ... say: (fr. 74. 1) and makes Charon the carpenter speak in the Iambic poem which begins:

I care not for the wealth of golden Gyges, nor ever have envied him; I am not jealous of the works of Gods, and I have no desire for lofty despotism; for such things are far beyond my ken.

Aristotle Rhetoric:
6 καρτερεῖν : that is, overcome, withstand, and he that is master of anything is kartero/s; compare Archilochus:

and he is master of sheep-rearing Asia.

Scholiast on Euripides
“Some hold that Apollo is so called because he destroys ( ἀπολλύντα ) living creatures; for he kills and destroys them when he sends a plague in time of great heat; compare Euripides ... and Archilochus:

Lord Apollo, reveal Thou the guilty and destroy them as Thou ever dost.

Macrobius Saturnalia:
“The mark is because Archilochus uses ὑπερτέρα for νεωτέρα ‘younger,’ thus:

only the younger daughter of Lycambes7

Scholiast on Homer
8And the finest of poets, Archilochus, when he praises the hair, praises it on the head of a harlot, crying ‘while her hair,’ etc.

She rejoiced with a branch of myrtle and the fair flower of the rose-tree in her hands,9 while her hair veiled her shoulders and her back.

Synesius In Praise of Baldness:ῥόδον means the flower, rose, ῥοδωνιά the place, rosary, ῥοδῆ the plant, rosetree; Archilochus: —” Ammonius Words Alike but Different
“And in another passage Archilochus says:

perfumed so of hair and bosom that e'en an old man would have loved them10

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner [on perfume, after fr. 31]
11When Pericles returned to Athens after his reduction of Samos, he honoured the fallen with a public funeral, at which he won very great admiration for the speech he delivered, in accordance with custom, at the tomb. As he stepped down from the platform, most of the women clasped his hand and put wreaths and ribbons upon his head as though he had been a winner in the Games; but Elpinice went up to him and said: ‘You indeed deserve wreaths, Pericles, for the great things you have done, seeing that you have lost us many brave citizens, not in war with Medes or Phoenicians like my brother Cimon, but subduing an allied and kindred people.’ Thereupon Pericles with a gentle smile, it is said, quoted to her the words of Archilochus:

Too old art thou to scent thyself with perfumes.

Plutarch Life of Pericles:
“The wine made of barley is called by some writers ‘ale’ ... compare Archilochus:

She drank to the tune of the flute as a Thracian or Phrygian drinks his ale.12

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner
13 βάβαξ: —talkative; compare Archilochus:

The talkative lecher14 went to and fro in the house.

Orion Etymologicum:

15 παλίνσκιον : Archilochus in the Trimeters:

They leant against the wall in the shadow;

that is, in the dark.

Harpocration Lexicon to the Ten Orators:

κύψαι :—that is, to hang oneself; compare Archilochus:

They hung their heads and spued out16 all their pride.

Photius Lexicon:

17Archilochus says:

But various are the things which cheer men's hearts;

in imitation of Homer.

Clement of Alexandria Miscellanies

18 ἐγκυτί :—a word meaning ἐν χρῷ ‘skin-close’; compare Archilochus:

his hair ( or mane) shorn skin-close from his shoulders

Etymologicum Magnum:
αἰηνές :—terrible or lamentable; compare Archilochus:

brought and set before his children a lamentable feast.19

Etymologicum Magnum:
20 κορωνός :—haughty and head-in-air; .. compare Archilochus:

We have a working ox that is haughty, knowing his work but unwilling to plough.

Etymologicum Magnum:
περιθεῖν ‘to run round’ means this (‘to surround on all sides’), as Archilochus shows; compare:

For such a fence runs round the courtyard.

Scholiast on Homer
21the Archilochian citation gives it short:

For we will never carry thee across without pay.22

Apollonius Dyscolus Adverbs [on adverbs ending in iota]
23... for Archilochus uses φυτόν (usually meaning ‘plant’) in the sense of ‘tumour or growth’:

For I know of another good cure for such a growth.

Scholiast on Theocritus [ἱππομανές]
24And what of Homer? Let one example suffice:25 ‘... and the hearts of the sailors tremble for fear; for by but a little ride they from beneath death’ ... Homer does not set a limit to the danger once for all, but paints men continually about to be swallowed up by every successive wave. Nay, by forcing the two prepositions ὑπό and ἐκ together unnaturally, he has tortured the verse to answer to the agony it describes, and by compressing the line has described the calamity surpassingly well, and all but stamped the peculiar nature of the peril on the words he employs. Archilochus does the same in the shipwreck.

stood on the edge between sea and wind.

[Longinus] On the Sublime:ἥκη :—the sharpness or edge of iron: compare Archilochus:” Etymologicum Magnum:
26We call by the name of tokens or omens sneezes or sayings or meetings: compare Archilochus:

I seek thee making an omen.27

Scholiast on Pindar
“They, it seems, called a man σοφός , wise or skilled, who pursued any art or craft, and among them was Archilochus who says:

a good man and a skilled steersman ... a threesailed boat.


“The aforesaid word φηλήτης ‘thief' occurs in Hesiod, and in Archilochus in the following line:

Thief that prowlest round the city in the night,

that is, a thief that lies in wait by night.

Eustathius on the Odyssey

28 μύκης :—... the male organ, declined by Archilochus with the same number of syllables,29 thus:

fracti sunt nervi mentulae <meae>.

Herodian The Accentuation of Nouns:
“It is also declined as a spondee Α῎ρης, Α῎ρου (‘of Ares’), whence extending it according to the Ionic dialect Archilochus gives in his Trimeters the form Α῎ρεω thus:

son of bloody Ares

Eustathius on the Iliad
“... the time of old age, for which the poet Archilochus declares idleness to be good.” Old Etymologicum Magnumμακκοᾶν :—to converse (?) ... compare:

An idle life is good for the aged, the more so if they be simple in their ways or be like to be stupid or to speak nought but foolishness, as old men will.30

Cedren Compendium of Histories:



are mentioned by Archilochus in an iambic poem.

Pausanias Description of Greece:


3233Cratinus has imitated the same line in the Flask, thus, ‘O most desolate fellow-townsmen,’ etc. It comes from Archilochus:

O most desolate fellow-townsmen, understand these words of mine.

Scholiast on Aristophanes Peace [‘O most wise and witty farmers, understand these words of mine’]
“The figs in Paros ... are mentioned by Archilochus, thus:

Heed not Paros and those figs and the life of the sea.

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner
“Hesiod, however, and Archilochus, according to Apollodorus, already know that they are called collectively both ‘Greeks’ and ‘All-Greeks,’ the one using the latter word of the suitors of the daughters of Proetus, the other thus:

How hath the misery of all Greece gathered in Thasos!

Strabo Geography:
34Alcaeus and Alcman say that a stone was hung over him; ... and Archilochus writes:

nor let the stone of Tantalus overhang this isle.

Scholiast on Pindar [on Tantalus]
35... just as Archilochus, entangled in the Thracian troubles, likens the war to a storm at sea, somehow thus:

Look, Glaucus; the waves e'en now run high, and upright about the tops of the Gyrae stands a cloud, the token of a storm; fear cometh of the unexpected.36

Heracleitus Homeric Allegories:
“Moreover he clearly adapts the following line, ‘The ends of victory lie for man in the hands of the Gods,’37 in the Iambic:

and hearten the young; the ends of victory are among the Gods.38

Clement of Alexandria Miscellanies [Archilochus]

Thou shouldest entrust all things to the Gods; often they raise uprigth those that be laid low on the black earth through misfortunes, and often they overthrow men and lay them on their backs though they stand firm enough; then cometh much trouble, and a man wanders in need of food and distraught in mind.

Stobaeus Anthology [that human prosperity is uncertain, because fortune easily changes]
39Later writers call by the name of κέρας or ‘horn’ the hornlike bunching-together of the hair of the head; compare Archilochus:

Sing of Glaucus the horn-fashioner ...

Scholiast on the Iliad “For some writers say that the hair is called κέρας or ‘horn,’ whence come κείρασθαι ‘to be shorn’ and κουρά ‘cutting of the hair,’ and explain the ‘horn-fashioner’ of Archilochus as ‘vain of one's hair’ or ‘foppish.’” Plutarch Sagacity of Animals [on the same passage of Homer]
40Archilochus ... speaking of a general, says:

I love not a tall general nor a straddling, nor one proud of his hair nor one part-shaven;41 for me a man should be short and bowlegged to behold, set firm on his feet, full of heart.42

Dio Chrysostom Orations:

“But nevertheless they cut off Vinius' head and Laco's too, and took them to Otho to ask for rewards. But as Archilochus says:

Of seven that lie dead whom we overtook in the pursuit, we are the thousand slayers.

In like manner then many that had no hand in the murder bloodied their hands and swords to show to Otho, and thrusting papers upon him, asked for rewards.

Plutarch Life of Galba:

43It is called a trochee because it has a running rhythm; for Archilochus uses it when his theme is ‘hot’ or excited, as in the line:44

Where, O where, Erxias, is the luckless host mustering?

Schoell's Anecdota Varia:
45... but the sun rather takes up the moisture from the carcases by its burning heat; wherefore Archilochus speaks scientifically where he says:

Many of them I hope the Dog-Star46 will wither up with his keen rays.

Plutarch Dinner-Table Problems [on the rotting of meat]
“... just as the line ‘The War-God is alike to all and slayeth him that would slay’ is adapted thus by Archilochus:

Let him do it; for truly Ares is alike to all.

Clement of Alexandria Miscellanies
“Archilochus: —

No man getteth honour or glory of his countrymen once he be dead; rather do we pursue the favour of the living while we live; the dead getteth ever the worst part.

Stobaeus Anthology [that after death most of us are quickly forgotten]
47Archilochus: —

It is not good to revile dead men.

Stobaeus Anthology [that we ought not to make a mock of the dead]
“Similarly Archilochus: —

One great thing I know,48 how to recompense with evil reproaches him that doeth me evil.

Theophilus of Antioch To Autolycus [that those who do wrong will be punished]
49Archilochus: —

Soul, my soul, that art confounded with hopeless troubles, look up and defend thyself against thy enemies, setting a bold front against ambushes and standing nigh unto the foe firm-planted; and exult not openly if thou prevail, nor if thou prevail not lie wailing at home; but rejoice not overmuch in delightful things nor be vexed overmuch in ill, knowing what sort of temper50 possesseth man.

Stobaeus Anthology [on anger]
“When we think we are slighted, our anger rises more against friends and acquaintance than against strangers. And so Archilochus is quite right when he thus addresses his soul in blame of his friends:

For 'tis thy friends make51 thee choke thyself.52

Aristotle Politics:
“There is no desire more imperious than that of thirst, and that is why Homer calls Argos ‘much-thirsted-after,’ as being greatly desired owing to lapse of time [to the absent Greeks]. And so too Sophocles says ... and Archilochus:

I long to fight with thee even as when I am thirsty I long to drink.

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner [on the metaphor of thirst]
“It occurs also in certain of the poets, as in Archilochus thus:

But now the rule is with Leophilus, the power is with Leophilus, all belongeth to Leophilus, and I address Leophilus.

Herodian Figures of Speech [repetition of a word in various cases]
53Adapting Homer where he says ‘such is the mind of earthly man as the Father of Gods and men may bring him for the day,’ Archilochus says this:

Such, Glaucus son of Leptines, becometh the mind of mortal man as Zeus may bring him for the day, and he thinketh such things as the deeds he meeteth.

Theon First Course in Grammar:
“‘I would that’ says every man that prays, and Archilochus says:

I would that so54 I might be granted to touch Neobule's hand.55

Plutarch On the E at Delphi:
“Thus ἀσκός (bag made of skin) is here used of the region of the belly; compare Archilochus:

et impigrum in utrem cadere et ventrem trudere in ventrem, femora in femora.

Scholiast on Euripides
“And again Archilochus, adapting the Homeric line ‘I was infatuate, I myself deny it not; worth many hosts ...,’ writes:

I sinned, and methinks this retribution hath overtaken another.

Clement of Alexandria Miscellanies
56... Archilochus, who in his censure makes the father speak of the daughter in the Iambic poem:57

There is nothing in the world unexpected, nothing to be sworn impossible nor yet marvellous, now that Zeus the Father of the Olympians hath made night of noon by hiding the light of the shining Sun so that sore fear came upon mankind. Henceforth is anything whatsoever to be believed or expected. Let not one of you marvel, nay, though he see the beasts of the field exchange pasture with the dolphins of the deep, and the roaring waves of the sea become dearer than the land to such as loved the hill.58

Aristotle Rhetoric (see fr. 25)

“... As for instance when Archilochus prays:

Give ear, Lord Hephaestus, be a propitious aider in the fray unto thy suppliant, and grant me what Thou shalt grant;59

he clearly is calling on the God, but when .. (see fr. 12).

Plutarch How the Young should listen to Poetry:

“The term ἐξάρχειν ‘to lead off’ is peculiar to the lyre; thus Hesiod says ... and Archilochus:

myself leading off the Lesbian Paean to the sound of the flute.60

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner
“According to Philochorus the ancients do not always sing a dithyramb when pouring the libation, but when the libation has been poured, thus praising Apollo quietly and with decorum and Dionysus amid wine and jollity. Compare Archilochus:

For I know how to lead off the pretty tune of Lord Dionysus, my wits thunderstricken with wine.61

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner
62Archilochus speaks of Pericles as breaking into banquets uninvited like the Myconians:..

drinking much and unmingled wine, neither contributing thy cost [nor ... ]; nor yet enterest thou invited as a friend unto friends, but thy belly hath sore beguiled thy mind and thy wits to have no shame.63

Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner


6465These too were first used by Archilochus. For in some places he combined the 3 1/2-foot anapaestic and the 1 1/2-foot trochaic called ithyphallic, thus ‘Charilaus,’ etc. But his successors did not write it in the same way. For while he employed the caesura (or word-separation) only at the end of the colon, and admitted spondees in the anapaestic part of the line as ‘And some of the citizens’ etc., his successors employed the caesura promiscuously; compare Cratinus....

Charilaus son of Erasmon, I'll tell thee a droll thing, thou much the dearest of my comrades, and the hearing of it shall delight thee ... to love him though hateful and not talk with ... and some of the citizens went behind but most of them ... about to raise hands to Demeter ...

Hephaestion Handbook of Metre [on ‘unconnectable' metres] “And one might take it there is a third point of difference between Archilochus and his successors, namely that he appears to use an anapaest in the first foot, thus ‘I will tell’ etc. and ‘To love him though hateful’ etc., which they did not. But this is probably wrong, because in both cases the apparent anapaest becomes an iambus by synecphonesis or combination of vowels.” Hephaestion Handbook of Metre “Archilochus was the first to use an anapaestic with this number of feet, putting it before the ithyphallic in the Tetrameters, for ‘Charilaus son of Erasmon’ is a 3 1/2-foot anapaestic; and he also used an iambus in the first foot, as is clear from the example just quoted, and even a spondee as ‘about to raise’ etc. The first-foot anapaest seems to be found only in two lines, ‘I will tell’ etc. and ‘To love him though hateful’ etc.; but in both lines the anapaest is really an iambus by synecphonesis.” Hephaestion Handbook of Metre [on the anapaestic]
“We have already spoken of the gluttony of Thys the king of the Paphlagonians.... And Archilochus in the Tetrameters has reproached Charilas with the same thing.66Athenaeus Doctors at Dinner
“... The words that differ in the spelling: these are ... εἴκελος ‘like’ in ‘like lightning,’ and ἴκελος, .. βακχεία ‘Bacchic revelry’ and bakxi/a in Archilochus’ line:

each man drank from dawn onward, and in Bacchic revelries ..

Grammarian in Welcker's Opuscula:

1 cf. Heracl. Pont. Pol. 22, Suid. τὰ Μαγν. κακά , Ars. 442, Clem. Al. Str. i. 397, Ath. 12. 525c

2 see on Callinus, vol. i. p. 42

3 cf. Hesych. ἀμφ᾽ Α᾿κίριος , Plin. N.H. 3. 97, Str. 6. 264

4 cf. Sch. Il. 9. 378

5 Aristotle quotes only the first halfline; the rest is cited anonymously by Plutarch Tranq. 10. 470c (Plut. implies that here A. is speaking in propria persona ); cf. Anacreont. 8, Jub. ap. Rufin. Gr. Lat. 6. 2. p. 563 K, Sch. Aesch. P.V. 224, Arg. Soph. O.T., E.G. 537. 26, E.M. 771. 54

6 cf. Sch. Od. 15. 534, Cram. A.P. 3. 496. 13, Eust. 1790. 7

7 perh. it really meant taller ; cf. Hesych. ὑπερτέρα

8 cf. Philem. 63, Fav. ῥόδον , Bachm. An. 2. 379, Sch. Theocr. 4. 45, E.M. 441. 49, Ath. 2. 52 f, Eust. 1963. 49

9 here ends A.'s citation

10 or perhaps her

11 cf. Ath. 15. 688c, Eust. Il. 1300. 41

12 the word translated ‘drank’ most prob. means ‘swallowed down’ (Boisacq), and was apparently a colloquial word for what was otherwise known as ἄμυστις or drinking without stopping for breath, a trick of the symposium, originally Thracian, which was done to the sound of the flute, cf. Ath. ll. 783d ff; the Greek adds a still more reprehensible trait, et a tergo percutiebatur , see opp.

13 cf. E.M. 183. 50, Et. Vind. Cod. 131

14 meaning doubtful; the words might also mean ‘hated eunuch,’ cf. Hesych. βάβακα , but cf. μισητία and Hesych. μισητός

15 cf. Phot. 374. 10, Suid. παλίνσκιον

16 cf. φλύω and Ap. Rh. 3. 582 with Sch., A.P. 7. 351-2; masculine precludes ref. to the daughters of Lycambes; or, keeping the Greek, ‘sloughed’ (like a snake), cf. φλόα Nic. Al. 302 and φλοιός

17 cf. Sext. Emp. Math. 11. 44, Cram. A.P. 3. 488. 17

18 cf. Et. Mag. Vet. , Callim. ap. Hdn. i. 511. 22

19 the Eagle and the Vixen's young in the Fable (Schn.), see p. 142

20 cf. Hesych. κορωνός , Et. Gud. 339. 31, Cram. A.P. 4. 76. 30, E.M. Vet.

21 cf. Cram. A.O. 3. 300. 24

22 referring to the story of Nessus.

23 cf. Hesych. φυτοῦ: φύματος

24 cf. Et. Mag. 47. 22, Et. Vind. Cod. 158, Zon. 983, Fav. 190

25 Il. 15. 624

26 cf. Sch. Il. 23. 199

27 or I supplicate thee, etc.; another scholion indicates the source of this note to be Philochorus

28 cf. Cram. A.O. 3. 231. 5

29 i.e. not with gen. μύκητος

30 ascription doubtful

31 Eust. ad Dion. 767., Str. 10. 457, Euseb. Praep. Ev. 5. 229 [ Σαβαῖοι ]

32 the metre is really trochaic, but the Alexandrian editors class iambic and trochaic together as iambic in naming Books, and before their day the word ἴαμβος had a more than merely metrical connotation

33 cf. E.M. 566. 53, E. Gud. 371. 28

34 cf. Plut. Praec. Reip. 6, Paus. 10. 31. 12

35 cf. Plut Superst. 8, Sch. Hermog. Rh. Gr. 5. 526 W, Theophr. Sign. 3. 8, Cic. Att. 5. 12 (where B sugg. ἄκρα Τυρέων ]

36 i.e. be warned in time

37 apparently misquoted from Il. 7. 102

38 i.e. the victory is in their hands to decide

39 cf. Hesych. κεροπλάστης , Poll. 2. 31

40 cf. Gal. in Hippocr. de Artic. 3. vol. 18. 1. 537 K, 604, Erotian 13. 32 Klein, Sch. Theocr. 4. 49, Philostr. Vit. Soph. 238 K

41 prob. with shaven upper-lip

42 so Galen's version; perh. = full of pith; ‘heart,’ if right, can hardly mean courage here: or, emending Dio's version shaggy-browed (cf. l. 2)

43 cf. Heph. 6. 2. p. 18 C and Sch. 271. 8, Mar. Vict. Gr. Lat. 6. 84. 26, E.M. Vet. (ascribes it to Callimachus)

44 Marius Vict. says that the catalectic tetrameter ‘which is called Archilochian’ is aptum festinis narrationibus

45 cf. Hesych. Σείριος

46 i.e. the sun in the time of the Dog-Star

47 cf. Clem. Al. Str. 6. 5. 10. 425, Sch. Od. 23. 412

48 cf. the Fox and the Hedgehog, fr. 118

49 cf. Dion. Hal. Comp. 17, Apost. 18. 8a

50 i.e. temperament; the Gk. is ‘rhythm,’ cf. Theogn. 966

51 or made

52 or hang thyself

53 cf. Sch. Hermog. Rh. Gr. 7. 934 W, Diog. L. 9. 71, Suid. Πυρρώνειοι , Stob. Ecl. Phys. i. 38, Plut. Nobil. 22, Vit. Hom. Gale Opusc. 366, Sext. Emp. Math. 7. 218

54 perh. the ‘so’ used in prayers to imply a precedent vow

55 or, emending the unusual Greek , touch N. with my hand

56 cf. Stob. Fl. 110. 10, Plut. Fac. Lun. 19 (quoted Mimn. 20)

57 Il. 2-9 are found only in Stobaeus

58 prob. ref. to the eclipse usually dated 6th Apr. 648 B.C. but recently put at 5th Apr. 647; that of June 27 660, which was total at Thasos and not at Paros, would also fall in A.'s lifetime (Ginzel)

59 taking χαρίζεαι as subjunctive, cf. Hdt. 5. 23 συνέχεαι , Aesch. Cho. 780, Sa. 46. 8 L.G. i Ed. 2; but it may be ‘what thou grantest (habitually),’ cf. fr. 27

60 if the context is sound, the line is cited to show that A. thought it necessary to mention the flute as exceptional

61 i.e. ‘after men have well drunken’

62 cf. Eust. Il. 1148. 38

63 the 3rd-Cent. B.C. Papyrus containing the ends of 8 tetrameters perh. of Archilochus, Milne Cat. Lit. Pap. Brit. Mus. 55 p. 43, is unfortunately too fragmentary to be included in this book

64 i.e. compounded of two parts properly ‘unconnectable’

65 cf. Heph. pp. 48-9 C, Sch. Pind. P. arg. 9. 12, Is. arg. 3. 5, Suid. Εὐγένιος

66 cf. Ael. V.H. i. 27, Eust. 1630. 4

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