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And the Lydians were also the first people to introduce the use of the sauce called caruca; concerning the preparation of which all those who have written cookery books have spoken a good deal-namely, Glaucus the Locrian, and Mithæcus, and Dionysius, and the two Heraclidæ (who were by birth Syracusans), and Agis, and Epænetus, and Dionysius, and also Hegesippus, and Erasistratus, and Euthydemus, and [p. 828] Criton; and besides these, Stephanus, and Archytas, and Acestius, and Acesias, and Diocles, and Philistion; for I know that all these men have written cookery books. And the Lydians, too, used to speak of a dish which they called candaulus; and there was not one kind of candaulus only, but three, so wholly devoted were they to luxury. And Hegesippus the Tarentine says, that the candaulus is made of boiled meat, and grated bread, and Phrygian cheese, and aniseed, and thick broth: and it is mentioned by Alexis, in his Woman Working all Night, or The Spinners; and it is a cook who is represented as speaking:—
A. And, besides this, we now will serve you up
A dish whose name's candaulus.
B. I've ne'er tasted
Candaulus, nor have I e'er heard of it.
A. 'Tis a most grand invention, and 'tis mine;
And if I put a dish of it before you,
Such will be your delight that you'll devour
Your very fingers ere you lose a bit of it.
We here will get some balls of snow-white wool.
You will serve up an egg well shred, and twice
Boil'd till it's hard; a sausage, too, of honey;
Some pickle from the frying-pan, some slices
Of new-made Cynthian cheese; and then
A bunch of grapes, steep'd in a cup of wine:
But this part of the dish is always laugh'd at,
And yet it is the mainstay of the meal.
B. Laugh on, my friend; but now be off, I beg,
With all your talk about candauli, and
Your sausages, and dishes, and such luxuries.
Philemon also mentions the candaulus in his Passer-by, where he says—
For I have all these witnesses in the city,
That I'm the only one can dress a sausage,
A candaulus, eggs, a thrium, all in no time:
Was there any error or mistake in this?
And Nicostratus, in his Cook, says—
A man who could not even dress black broth,
But only thria and candauli.
And Menander, in his Trophonius, says—
Here comes a very rich Ionian,
And so I make a good thick soup, and eke
A rich candaulus, amatory food.
And the Lydians, when going out to war, array themselves to [p. 829] the tune of flutes and pipes, as Herodotus says; and the Lacedæmonians also attack their enemies keeping time to their flutes, as the Cretans keep time to the lyre.

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