That the word βότρυς is common for a bunch of grapes is known to every one; and Crates, in the second book of his Attic Dialect, uses the word σταφυλὴ, although it appears to be a word of Asiatic origin; saying that in some of the ancient hymns the word σταφυλὴ. is used for βότρυς, as in the following line:—
Thick hanging with the dusky grapes (σταφυλῆσι) themselves.And that the word σταφυλὴ is used by Homer is known to every one. But Plato, in the eighth book of his Laws, uses both βότρυς and σταφυλὴ, where he says—“Whoever tastes wild fruit, whether it be grapes (βοτρύων) or figs, before the time of the vintage arrives, which falls at the time of the rising of Arcturus, whether it be on his own farm, or on any one else's land, shall be fined fifty sacred drachmas to be paid to Bacchus, if he plucked them off his own land; but a mina [p. 1045] if he gather them on a neighbour's estate; but if he take them from any other place, two-thirds of a mina. But whoever chooses to gather the grapes (τὴν σταφυλὴν), which are now called the noble grapes, or the figs called the noble figs, if he gather them from his own trees, let him gather them as he pleases, and when he pleases; but if he gathers them from the trees of any one else without having obtained the leave of the owner, then, in accordance with the law which forbids any one to move what he has not placed, he shall be invariably punished.” These are the words of the divine Plato; but I ask now what is this noble grape (γενναῖα), and this noble fig that he speaks of? And you may all consider this point while I am discussing the other dishes which are on the table. And Masurius said—
But let us not postpone this till to-morrow,When the philosopher says γενναῖα, he means εὐγενῆ,, gene- rous, as Archilochus also uses the word—
Still less till the day after.
Come hither, you are generous (γενναῖος);or, perhaps, he means ἐπιγεγενημένα; that is to say, grafted. For Aristotle speaks of grafted pears, and calls them ἐπεμβολάδες. And Demosthenes, in his speech in defence of Ctesiphon, has the sentence, “gathering figs, and grapes (βότρυς), and olives.” And Xenophon, in his (Economics, says, “that grapes (τὰς σταφυλὰς) are ripened by the sun.” And our ancestors also have been acquainted with the practice of steeping grapes in wine. Accordingly Eubulus, in his Catacollomenos, says—
But take these grapes (βότρυς), and in neat wine pound them.And the poet, who is the author of the Chiron, which is generally attributed to Pherecrates, says—
And pour upon them many cups of water.
Then make him eat them when well steep'd in wine.
Almonds and apples, and the arbutus first,And that every sort of autumn fruit was always plentiful at Athens, Aristophanes testifies in his Horæ. Why, then, should that appear strange which Aethlius the Samian asserts in the fifth book of his Samian Annals, where he says, “The fig, and the grape, and the medlar, and the apple, and the rose grow twice a-year?” And Lynceus, in his letter to [p. 1046] Diagoras, praising the Nicostratian grape, which grows in Attica, and comparing it to the Rhodiacan, says, “As rivals of the Nicostratian grapes they grow the Hipponian grape; which after the month Hecatombæon (like a good servant) has constantly the same good disposition towards its masters.”
And myrtle-berries, pastry, too, and grapes
Well steep'd in wine; and marrow.