But Aristotle, in the second book of his treatise on Love Affairs, and Ariston the Peripatetic, who was a native of Ceos, in the second book of his Amatory Resemblances, say that “The ancients, on account of the headaches which were produced by their wine-drinking, adopted the practice of wearing garlands made of anything which came to hand, as the binding the head tight appeared to be of service to them. But men in later times added also some ornaments to their temples, which had a kind of reference to their employment of drinking, and so they invented garlands in the present fashion. But it is more reasonable to suppose that it was because the head is the seat of all sensation that men wore crowns upon it, than that they did so because it was desirable to have their temples shaded and bound as a remedy against the headaches produced by wine.” They also wore garlands over their foreheads, as the sweet Anacreon says—
And placing on our brows fresh parsley crowns,They also wore garlands on their breasts, and anointed them with perfume, because that is the seat of the heart. And they call the garlands which they put round their necks ὑποθυμιάδες, as Alcæus does in these lines—
Let's honour Bacchus with a jovial feast.
Let every one twine round his neckAnd Sappho says—
Wreathed ὑποθυμιάδες of anise.
And wreathed ὑποθυμιάδεςAnd Anacreon says—
In numbers round their tender throats.
They placed upon their bosoms lotus flowersAeschylus also, in his Prometheus Unbound, says distinctly—
Entwined in fragrant ὑποθυμιάδες.
And therefore we, in honour of Prometheus,[p. 1077] And again, in the play entitled the Sphinx, he says-
Place garlands on our heads, a poor atonement
For the sad chains with which his limbs were bound.
Give the stranger a στέφανος (garland), the ancient στέφος,—But Sappho gives a more simple reason for our wearing garlands, speaking as follows—
This is the best of chains, as we may judge
From great Prometheus.
But place those garlands on thy lovely hair,In which lines she enjoins all who offer sacrifice to wear garlands on their heads, as they are beautiful things, and acceptable to the Gods. Aristotle also, in his Banquet, says, “We never offer any mutilated gift to the Gods, but only such as are perfect and entire; and what is full is entire, and crowning anything indicates filling it in some sort. So Homer says—
Twining the tender sprouts of anise green
With skilful hand; for offerings of flowers
Are pleasing to the gods, who hate all those
Who come before them with uncrowned heads.
And in another place he says—
The slaves the goblets crown'd with rosy wine;Iliad, i. 470.
That is to say, eloquence in speaking makes up in the case of some men for their personal ugliness. Now this is what the στέφανος seems intended to do, on which account, in times of mourning, we do exactly the contrary. For wishing to testify our sympathy for the dead, we mutilate ourselves by cutting our hair, and by putting aside our garlands.”
But God plain forms with eloquence does crown.Odyss. viii. 170.