With respect to Radishes.—The Greek name ῥαφανὶς is derived from ῥᾳδίως φαίνεσθαι, because they quickly appear above ground; and in the plural the Attic writers either shorten or lengthen the penultima at pleasure. Cratinus writes—
῾ραφανίδες ἄπλυτοι, unwashed radishes and cuttle-fish.For the word ἄπλυτοι, unwashed, must clearly refer to the radishes, and not to the cuttle-fish; as is shown by Antiphanes, in whom we find these lines:—
To eat ducks, and honeycombs of wild bees, and eggs,So that radishes appear to have been particularly called un- washed radishes; being probably the same as those called Thasian. Pherecrates says—
And cheese-cakes, and unwash'd radishes,
And rape, and oatmeal-groats, and honey.
There one may have the unwash'd radish, and the warmAnd Plato, in his Hyperbolus, says, using the diminutive termination, φύλλιον ἤ ῥαφανίδιον, “a leaflet, or a little radish.” But Theophrastes, in his book on Plants, says that there are five kinds of radishes: the Corinthian, the Leiothasian, the Cleonæan, the Amorean, and the Bœotian; and that the Bœotian, which is of a round form, is the sweetest. And he says that, as a general rule, those the leaves of which are smooth, are the sweetest. But Callias used the form ῥάφανος for ῥάφανις; at all events, when discussing the antiquity of comedy, he says, “Broth, and sausages, and radishes (ῥάφανοι), and fallen olives, and cheese-cakes.” And indeed that he meant the same as what we call ῥαφανίδες, is plainly sown by Aristophanes, who in the Danaïdes alludes to such old forms, and says—
Bath, and closely stewed pickles, and nuts.
And then the chorus used to dance,And the radish is a very economical kind of food. Amphis says— [p. 94]
Clad in worsted-work and fine clothes;
And bearing under their arms ribs of beef,
And sausages, and radishes.
Whoever, when purchasing food,
When it is in his power, O Apollo, to buy genuine fish,
Prefers buying radishes, is downright mad!