I know too that Simonides the poet, somewhere or other, has called Jupiter ᾿αρίσταρχος, (meaning ἄριστος ἄρχων, best of rulers;) and Aeschylus calls Pluto ᾿αγησίλαος, (from ἄγειν τὸν λαὸν, collecting the people;) and Nicander the Colophonian called the asp, the animal, ἰοχέαιρα, poisonous, (from ἰὸς, poison, and χέω, to emit; though the word is usually applied to Diana in the sense of shooting arrows, because ἰὸς also means an arrow.) And it is on account of these tricks and others like them that the divine Plato, in his Politics, after having said that some animals live on the dry land, and others in the water, and also, that there are some classes which are fed on dry food, others on moist food, and others which graze, giving the names of ξηροβατικὰ and ὑγροβατικὰ, and again, of ξηροτροφικὰ, ὑγροτροφικὰ and ξηρονομικὰ to the different minds of animals, according as they live on the land, or in the water, or in the air—adds, by way of exhortation to those manufacturers of names to guard against novelty, the following sentence, word for word:—“And if you take care not to appear too anxious in making new names you will continue to old [p. 166] age with a greater reputation for prudence.” But I know that Herodes Atticus, a rhetorician, named the piece of wood which was put through his wheels when he was going in his chariot down steep places, τροχοπέδης, (as a fetter to the wheels.) Although Simaristus, in his Synonymes, had already given this piece of wood the name of ἐποχλεὺς, or the drag. And Sophocles the poet, in some one of his works, called a guardian a bolt, saying—
Be of good cheer, I am a mighty boltAnd, in another place, he has given an anchor the name of ἰσχὰς or the holder, because it κατέχει, holds the ship—
To keep this fear away from you.
And the sailors let out the holder of the ship.And Demades the orator said that Aegina was the “eyesore of the Peiræus,” and that Samos was “a fragment broken off from the city.” And he called the young men “the spring of the people;” and the wall he called “the garment of the city;” and a trumpeter he entitled “the common cock of the Athenians.” But this word-hunting sophist used all sorts of' far more far-fetched expressions. And whence, O Ulpian, did it occur to you to use the word κεχορτασμένος for satiated, when κορέω is the proper verb for that meaning, and χορτάζω means to feed?