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1 Since 206 B.C. (XXVIII. xxxviii. 1).
2 An anachronism is involved in the use of the word proconsul to translate the phrase pro consule. After the time of Sulla consuls and praetors served in administrative and judicial capacities in Rome during their terms of office, but without exercising imperium (cf. the note on iii. 2 above), and were then sent out as proconsuls and propraetors, with the imperium, to govern the territorial provinces. They were thus eligible for triumphs. In the third century, even private citizens, in cases of emergency, could be commissioned to act pro consule, pro praetore, i.e. as substitutes for magistrates. Not being a regularly elected magistrate, exercising command under auspices which he had himself taken, such a person could not be granted a triumph. Scipio had had the same experience in 206 B.C. (XXVIII. xxxviii. 4), although he had cleared Spain of Carthaginian troops.
3 An ovation was a minor dignity conferred on commanders who were adjudged undeserving of triumphs. The conditions of eligibility were probably identical with those for a triumph, and the tribune's position seems to have been technically correct.
4 B.C. 200
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