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1 Or Bactriana, more properly.
2 Magic, no doubt, has been the subject of belief from the earliest times, whatever may have been the age of Zoroaster, the Zaratbustra of the Zend- avesta, and the Zerdusht of the Persians. In the Zendavesta he is represented as living in the reign of Gushtasp, generally identified with Darius Hystaspes. He probably lived at a period anterior to that of the Median and Persian kings. Niebuhr regards him as a purely mythical personage
3 See end of B. ii.
4 See end of this Book.
5 An exaggeration, of Oriental origin, most probably.
6 These names have all, most probably, been transmitted to us in a corrupted form. Ajasson gives some suggestions as to their probable Eastern form and origin.
7 One among the many proofs, Ajasson says, that the Iliad and the Odyssey belong to totally different periods.
8 In reference to the Tenth Book of the Odyssey.
9 See B. v. cc. 28, 29. Cicero mentions a college of Aruspices established at this city.
10 The name "Thessala" was commonly used by the Romans to signify an enchantress, sorceress, or witch. See the story of Apuleius, Books i. and iii.
11 The countries of the East.
12 Purely medicinal remedies.
13 In contradistinction to lightnings elicited by the practice of Magic.
14 A poetical figure, alluding to the "thunderbolts of war," as wielded probably by Achilles and other heroes of Thessaly.
15 See B. ii. c. 9.
16 Ajasson queries whether this is a proper name, or an epithet merely.
17 Ajasson combats this assertion at considerable length, and with good reason. It is quite inadmissible.
18 The mysteries of philosophy, as Ajasson remarks, were not necessarily identical with the magic art.
19 In reality, Pythagoras was an exile from the tyranny of the ruler of Samos, Plato from the court of Dionysius the Younger, and Democritus from the ignorance of his fellow-countrymen of Abdera. There is no doubt that Pythagoras and Democritus made considerable researches into the art of magic as practised in the East.
20 Nothing is known of this writer.
21 Dardanus, the ancestor of the Trojans, if he is the person here meant, is said to have introduced the worship of the gods into Samothrace.
22 The works of Homer were transmitted in a similar manner.
23 Moses, no doubt, was represented by the Egyptian priesthood as a magician, in reference more particularly to the miracles wrought by him before Pharaoh. From them the Greeks would receive the notion.
24 In 2 Tim. iii. 8, we find the words, "Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth." Eusebius, in his Prœ paratio Evangeliea, B. ix., states that Jannes and Jambres, or Mambres, were the names of Egyptian writers, who practised Magic, and opposed Moses before Pharaoh. This contest was probably represented by the Egyptian priesthood as merely a dispute between two antagonistic schools of Magic.
25 Of this person nothing is known. The former editions mostly have "Jotapea." "Jotapata" was the name of a town in Syria, the birthplace of Josephus.
26 He is mistaken here as to the nation to which Jannes belonged.
27 By some it has been supposed that this bears reference to Christianity, as introduced into Cyprus by the Apostle Barnabas Owing to the miracles wrought in the infancy of the Church, the religion of the Christians was very generally looked upon as a sort of Magic. The point is very doubtful.
28 His itinerary, Ajasson remarks, would have been a great curiosity.
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