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1 These two artists are invariably mentioned together. Pausanias, B. ii. c. 14 and B. iii. c. 17, speaks of them as the pupils or sons of Dædalus; only intimating thereby, as Sillig thinks, that they were the first sculptors worthy of being associated with the father of artists. Pausanias, B. ii. c. 22, mentions ebony statues by them.
2 In the time of the Telchines, before the arrival of Inachus in Argolis.
3 Pausanias says that this statue was completed by their pupils. Clemens Alexandrinus mentions other works of theirs.
4 Another reading is "Anthermus." Of many of these sculptors, no further particulars are known.
5 Another cause of the quarrel is said to have been the refusal of Bupalus to give his daughter in marriage to Hipponax. This quarrel is referred to in the Greek Anthology, B. iii. Epigr. 26.
6 See B. xiv. c. 9.
7 See B. iv. c. 20.
8 Dedicated by Augustus, in the Tenth Region of the City.
9 λύχνος being the Greek for a "lamp."
10 See B. iii. c. 8: now known as the marble of Massa and Carrara, of a bluish white, and a very fine grain.
11 A similar case has been cited, in the figure of St. Jerome, to be seen on a stone in the Grotto of Our Saviour at Bethlehem, and in a representation of the Crucifixion, in the Church of St. George, at Venice. A miniature resembling that of the poet Chaucer is to be seen on the surface of a small stone in the British Museum.
12 See B. xxxv. c. 44.
13 See B. xxxv. cc. 37, 40.
14 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
15 "In the Gardens." A suburb of Athens, in which there was a temple of Venus, or Aphrodite Urania.
16 He is mentioned also by Pausanias and Strabo.
17 The Goddess of Retribution. Pausanias, B. i. c. 33, says that it was the work of Phidias, and that it was made of Parian marble, which the Persians had brought into Attica for the purpose of erecting a trophy. Strabo, however, in B. ix., says that it was the work of Agoracritus and Diodotus (an artist otherwise unknown), and that it was not at all inferior to the production of Phidias. Tzetzes again, Suidas, and Photius, say that it was the work of Phidias, and that it was presented by him to his favourite pupil, Agoracritus. Sillig rejects the story of the contest, and the decision by the suffrages of the Athenian people. Some modern writers have doubted also, whether a statue of Venus could be modified so as to represent Nemesis; but not with sufficient reason, Sillig thinks.
18 See B. iv. c. 11.
19 A statue, Sillig supposes, of the goddess Cybele.
20 "Pandoras Genesis."
21 Sillig is of opinion that this passage is corrupt, and is inclined to think, with Panofka, that the reading should be "nascenti adstantes,"— gods "standing by the new-born" Pandora.
22 In B. xxxiv. c. 19.
23 See B. xxxv. c. 45
24 "Velatâ specie." There has been much discussion about the meaning of these words; and Sillig is of opinion that the figure was represented draped in a garment, which, while it seemed designed to hide the person, really exposed it to view. This dress would not improbably recommend it additionally to the inhabitants of Cos, who were skilled in making the Coœ vestes, garments which, while they covered the body, revealed its naked charms. See further mention of them in B. ix. c. 26.
25 Visconti thinks that a statue still preserved in the Royal Museum at Paris, is a copy of the Coan Venus. It has, however, a figure of Cupid associated with it, which, as Sillig observes, militates against the supposition.
26 The ancient writers abound in praises of this wonderful statue. Lucian, however, has given the most complete and artistic description of it. It was supposed by the ancients, to represent Venus as standing before Paris, when he awarded to her the prize of beauty; but it has been well remarked, that the drapery in the right hand, and the vase by the side of the figure, indicate that she has either just left or is about to enter the bath. The artist modelled it from Phryne, a courtesan or hetæra of Athens, of whom he was greatly enamoured. It was ultimately carried to Constantinople, where it perished by fire in the reign of Justinian. It is doubtful whether there are any copies of it in existence. There is, however, a so-called copy in the gardens of the Vatican, and another in the Glyptothek, at Munich. A Venus in the Museo Pio-Clementino, at Rome, is considered by Visconti and others to have been a copy of the Cnidian Venus, with the addition of drapery. It is supposed that Cleomenes, in making the Venus de Medici, imitated the Cnidian Venus in some degree.
27 There are numerous Epigrams in reference to this statue in the Greek
Anthology; the most striking line in any of which is the beautiful Pentameter:
φεῦ! φεῦ! πο̂υ γυμνήν έ̂ιδε με πραξιτέλης;
"Alas! where has Praxiteles me naked seen?"
28 Lucian, Valerius Maximus, and Athenæus, tell the same improbable story, borrowing it from Posidippus the historian.
30 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
31 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
32 Pliny is mistaken here: for in the time of Cicero, as we find in Verr. 4, 2, 4, the Thespian Cupid was still at Thespiæ, in Bæotia, where it had been dedicated by Phryne, and was not removed to Rome till the time of the emperors. It was the Parian Cupid, originally made for the people of Parium, that, after coming into the possession of Heius, a rich Sicilian, was forcibly taken from him by Verres.
33 Where it was destroyed by fire in the reign of Titus. See B. xxxiv. c. 37.
34 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
35 Frantic Bacchantes.
36 Sacrificing Bacchantes.
37 The name given in architecture to figures of females employed as columns in edifices. The Spartans, on taking the city of Carya, in Laconia, massacred the male inhabitants, and condemned the females to the most bitter servitude, as "hewers of wood and drawers of water." Hence the memorials of their servitude thus perpetuated in architecture.
38 Or companions of Bacchus. See B. xxxv. c. 36.
39 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
41 Also mentioned in B. xxxiv. c. 19.
42 Pausanias, B. I., speaks of three figures sculptured by Scopas; Erôs, Himeros, and Pothos. It is doubtful, however, whether they are identical with those here spoken of.
43 Or "Desire." The name of "Phaëthon" is added in most of the editions, but Sillig rejects it as either a gloss, or a corruption of some other name.
44 "Campteras." This, which is probably the true reading, has been restored by Sillig from the Bamberg MS. The καμπτήρ was the bend or turning, round the goal in the race-course for chariots; and as Vesta was symbolical of the earth, these figures, Sillig thinks, probably represented the poles, as goals of the sun's course.
45 Figures of Virgins, carrying on their heads baskets filled with objects consecrated to Minerva.
46 Dedicated to Neptune by Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, in the Ninth Region of the City.
47 "Et" appears a preferable reading to the "aut" of the Bamberg MS.
48 "Hippocampi." It is pretty clear that by this name he cannot mean the small fish so called in B. xxxii. cc. 20, 23, 27, 30, 35, 38, 50, and 53, and alluded to in B. ix. c. 1; the Syngnathus hippocampus of Linnæus.
49 A sea-divinity.
50 "Pistrices." See B. ix. cc. 2, 3, 15.
51 Conqueror of Callæcia. See B. iv. c. 35. This temple was dedicated to Mars.
52 A statue of Apollo, Hardouin thinks, which was originally brought from Seleucia by C. Sosius, the quæstor of M. Lepidus. See B. xiii. c. 5.
53 Ajasson says that this work is identical with the group representing Niobe and her children, now at Florence. It was found in 1535, or, as some say, 1583, near the Lateran Gate at Rome; upon which, it was bought by Ferdinand de Medici, and placed in the park of one of his villas. More recently, the Emperor Leopold purchased it, and had it removed to Florence.
54 The Temple of Janus, in the Eighth Region of the City.
55 Probably by neither of them, as Janus was essentially an Italian Divinity. See Ovid's Fasti, B. I.
56 See B. xxxv. c. 37.
57 A large upper garment, reaching to the ankles.
58 Both Liber and Libera were originally Italian Divinities, who presided over the vine and the fields. Pliny, however, always identifies the former with Bacchus, and other writers the latter with Persephone, or Proserpina, the daughter of Demeter or Ceres. Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. 1. 512, calls Ariadne, "Libera."
59 See B. xvi. c. 76.
60 A disciple of Marsyas, and a famous player on the flute. See p. 319.
61 All these figures have been found copied in the frescoes of Herculaneum.
62 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
63 It is doubtful whether this is the same artist that is mentioned in B. xxxiv. c. 19.
64 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
65 Hence, too, the use of the word "Mausoleum," as meaning a splendid tomb.
66 He means, probably, the extent of the colonnade or screen which surrounded it. The Mausoleum was erected at Halicarnassus.
67 Facing east and west.
68 Or "wing." The "ptera," or "pteromata," properly speaking, were the two wings at the sides of a building. See Note 80 below.
69 She only survived her husband two years.
70 Another reading, and perhaps a preferable one, is "one hundred" feet. The account given by Pliny is very confused, and Littré has taken some pains to explain the construction of this building. He is of opinion that in the first place, a quadrangular main building was erected, 63 feet in length on the north and south, the breadth of the east and west faces being shorter, some 42 feet perhaps. Secondly, that there was a screen of 36 columns surrounding the main building, and 411 feet in circumference. (He adopts this reading in preference to the 440 feet of the Bamberg MS.) That the longer sides of this screen were 113.25 feet in extent, and the shorter 92.125 feet. That between the main building and this screen, or colonnade, there was an interval of 25.125 feet. Thirdly, that the colonnade and the main buildings were united by a vaulted roof, and that this union formed the "Pteron." Fourthly, that rising from this Pteron, there was a quadrangular truncated pyramid, formed of twenty-four steps, and surmounted with a chariot of marble. This would allow, speaking in round numbers, 37 1/2 feet for the height of the main body of the building, 37 1/2 feet for the pyramid, and twenty-five feet for the height of the chariot and the figure which it doubtless contained.
71 Supposed to be the person alluded to by Horace, 1 Sat. 3, 90.
72 He is mentioned also by Tatian, and is supposed to have lived about the time of Alexander the Great.
74 "Porch," or "Vestibule" of the Citadel at Athens.
75 Mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 40. The present Socrates is identified by Pausanias, B. i. c. 22, and B. ix. c. 25, and by Diogenes Laertius, B. ii. c. 19, with the great Athenian philosopher of that name, son of the statuary Sophroniscus: but the question as to his identity is very doubtful. Diogenes Laertius adds, that whereas artists had previously represented the Graces naked, Socrates sculptured them with drapery.
76 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
77 See B. xxxv. c. 45.
78 Or Muses of Thespiæ, in Bœotia.
79 There have been several distinguished sculptors, all of this name. A statuary, son of Apollodorus the Athenian, made the celebrated Venus de Medici. It is the opinion of Visconti and Thiersch, that the artist here mentioned flourished before the destruction of Corinth.
80 This name is doubtful, and nothing is known relative to the artist.
81 "Hippiades" is the old reading, which Dalechamps considers to mean "Amazons." The Appiades were Nymphs of the Appian Spring, near the temple of Venus Genetrix, in the Forum of Julius Cæsar. See Ovid, Art. Am. B. i. 1. 81, and B. iii. 1. 451; and Rem. Am. 1. 659.
82 From an inscription on a statue still extant, he is supposed to have been a pupil of Pasiteles, and consequently to have flourished about B.C. 25.
83 Figures in which the form and attributes of Hermes, or Mercury, and Eros, or Cupid, were combined, Hardouin thinks.
84 In B. xxxiii. c. 55.
85 In Caria: see B. v. c. 29.
86 Or "Xenias"—"Presiding over hospitality," or "Protector of strangers."
87 The story was, that Zethus and Amphion bound Dirce, queen of Thebes, to the flanks of an infuriated bull, in revenge for the death of their mother, Antiope, who had been similarly slain by her. This group is supposed still to exist, in part, in the "Farnese Bull," which has been in a great measure restored. Winckelmann is of opinion, however, that the Farnese Bull is of anterior date to that here mentioned, and that it belongs to the school of Lysippus.
88 Probably a native of Rhodes. No further particulars of this artist appear to be known.
90 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
91 A different person, probably, from the painter, mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 40.
92 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
93 Supposed by Sillig not to be the early statuary of Argos of that name, who flourished, probably, B.C. 476.
94 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
95 "Pasiteles" would appear to be a preferable reading; for Pliny would surely have devoted more space to a description of these works of Praxiteles.
96 The same artist that is previously mentioned, Sillig thinks.
97 Of Jupiter.
98 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
99 "Symplegma." See Note 49, page 314.
100 The first being in a stooping posture, washing herself.
101 In B. xxxiii. c. 55, and B. xxxiv. c. 18.
102 A sculptor of the age of Alexander the Great. He is also mentioned by Tatian. For an account of Callisthenes, see end of B. xii.
103 Winckelmann supposes that these artists lived in the time of Lysippus;
but, as may be discovered from an attentive examination of the
present passage, Lessing and Thiersch are probably right in considering
them to have been contemporaries of the Emperor Titus. This group is
generally supposed to have been identical with the Laocoön still to be seen
in the Court of the Belvedere, in the Vatican at Rome; having been
found, in 1506, in a vault beneath the spot known as the Place de Sette
Sale, by Felix de Fredi, who surrendered it, in consideration of a pension,
to Pope Julius II. The group, however, is not made of a single block,
which has caused some to doubt its identity: but it is not improbable, that
when originally made, its joints were not perceptible to a common observer. The spot, too, where it was found was actually part of the palace
of Titus. It is most probable that the artists had the beautiful episode
of Laocoön in view, as penned by Virgil, Æn. B. II.; though Ajasson
doubts whether they derived any inspiration from it. Laocoön, in the
sublime expression of his countenance, is doing any thing, he says, but—
"Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit."
"Sending dire outcries to the stars of heaven."
104 This was an ancient and hideous idol, probably. Plato, Diodorus Siculus, Plautus, Lactantius, Arnobius, and Isidorus, all concur in saying that it was Saturn in honour of whom human victims were immolated.
105 "Ad Nationes." A portico built by Augustus, and adorned with statues representing various nations.
106 "Thespiades." They were brought by Mummius from Thespiæ, in Bœotia. See B. xxxiv. c. 19, and Note 88, above.
107 See B. xxxv. c. 45, and end of B. xxxiii.
108 Magna Græcia.
109 Built by Metellus Macedonicus.
110 "Navalia." This was the name of certain docks at Rome, where ships were built, laid up, and refitted. They were attached to the Emporium, without the Trigeminian Gate, and were connected with the Tiber.
111 See B. xxxv. c. 45.
112 In the Ninth Region of the City. These figures are mentioned also by Suetonius, C. 46.
113 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.
114 A singular combination of names, as they mean "Lizard" and "Frog." No further particulars of these artists are known, but they appear to have lived in the time of Pompey.
115 Of Juno and Apollo.
116 "Spiræ." See Chapter 56 of this Book.
117 Winckelmann, in Vol. II. p. 269, of the Monumenti Antichi ined., gives the chapiter of an Ionic column, belonging to the church of San Lorenzo, without the walls, at Rome, on the volutes of which are represented a frog and a lizard.
118 The old reading is adopted here, in preference to that of the Bamberg MS., which does not appear reconcileable to sense in saying that this temple of Jupiter was originally made in honour of Juno; for in such case there could be no mistake in introducing the emblems of female worship.
119 A sculptor of Miletus. See B. vii. c. 21.
120 A Lacedæmonian artist. See B. vii. c. 21.
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