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At Locri begins the fore-part of Italy, called Magna Græcia, whose coast falls back in three bays1 formed by the Ausonian sea, so called from the Ausones, who were the first inhabitants of the country. According to Varro it is 86 miles in extent; but most writers have made it only 75. Along this coast there are rivers innumerable, but we shall mention those only that are worthy of remark. After leaving Locri we come to the Sagra2, and the ruins of the town of Caulon, Mystiæ3, Consilinum Castrum4, Cocinthum5, in the opinion of some, the longest headland of Italy, and then the Gulf of Scylacium6, and Scylacium7 itself, which was called by the Athenians, when they founded it, Scylletium. This part of Italy is nearly a peninsula, in consequence of the Gulf of Terinæum8 running up into it on the other side; in it there is a harbour called Castra Hannibalis9: in no part is Italy narrower than here, it being but twenty miles across. For this reason the Elder Dionysius entertained the idea of severing10 this portion from the main-land of Italy at this spot, and adding it to Sicily. The navigable rivers in this district are the Carcines11, the Crotalus, the Semirus, the Arocas, and the Targines. In the interior is the town of Petilia12, and there are besides, Mount Clibanus13, the promontory of Lacinium, in front of which lies the island of Dioscoron14, ten miles from the main-land, and another called the Isle of Calypso, which Homer is supposed to refer to under the name of Ogygia; as also the islands of Tiris, Eranusa, and Meloessa. According to Agrippa, the promontory of Lacinium15 is seventy miles from Caulon.

(11.) At the promontory of Lacinium begins the second Gulf of Europe, the bend of which forms an are of great depth, and terminates at Acroceraunium, a promontory of Epirus, from which it is distant16 seventy-five miles. We first come to the town of Croton17, and then the river Neæthus18, and the town of Thurii19, situate between the two rivers Crathis and Sybaris, upon the latter of which there was once a city20 of the same name. In a similar manner Heraclia21, sometimes called Siris, lies between the river of that name and the Aciris. We next come to the rivers Acalandrus and Casuentum22, and the town of Metapontum23, with which the third region of Italy terminates. In the interior of Bruttium, the Aprustani24 are the only people; but in Lucania we find the Atinates, the Bantini, the Eburini25, the Grumentini, the Potentini, the Sontini26, the Sirini, the Tergilani, the Ursentini, and the Volcentani27, whom the Numestrani join. Besides these, we learn from Cato28 that Thebes in Lucania has disappeared, and Theopompus informs us that there was formerly a city of the Lucani called Pandosia29, at which Alexander, the king of Epirus, died.

1 These are the Gulf of Locri, the Gulf of Scyllacium, and the Gulf of Tarentum.

2 Now called the Sagriano, though some make it to be the modern Alaro. The site of the town of Caulon does not appear to be known:, it is by some placed at Castel Vetere on the Alaro.

3 Said by Hardouin to be the modern Monasteraci or Monte Araci.

4 Supposed to have been situate on a hill near the modern Padula.

5 The modern Punta di Stilo, or "Point of the Column."

6 The modern Gulf of Squillace.

7 Now Squillace.

8 Now the Gulf of Saint Eufemia.

9 Hannibal's Camp." This was the seaport of Scyllacium, and its site was probably near the mouth of the river Corace.

10 According to Strabo, B. vi., he intended to erect a high wall across, and so divide it from the rest of Italy; but if we may judge, from the use by Pliny of the word "intercisam," it would seem that it was his design to cut a canal across this neck of land.

11 According to Hardouin, the Carcines is the present river Corace, the Crotalus the Alli, the Semirus the Simari, the Arocas the Crocchio, and the Targines the Tacina.

12 The present Strongolo, according to D'Anville and Mannert.

13 The present Monte Monacello and Monte Fuscaldo are supposed to form part of the range called Clibanus.

14 Meaning that it was sacred to Castor and Pollux. Such are the changes effected by lapse of time that these two islands are now only bleak rocks. The present locality of the other islands does not appear to be known.

15 Now Capo di Colonne.

16 The real distance from Acroceraunimn, now Capo Linguetta, is 153 miles, according to Ansart.

17 Or Crotona, one of the most famous Greek cities in the south of Italy. No ruins of the ancient city, said by Livy to have been twelve miles in circumference, are now remaining. The modern Cotrone occupies a part of its site. Pythagoras taught at this place.

18 The modern Neto.

19 Now called Turi, between the rivers Crati and Sibari or Roscile.

20 A Greek town, famous for the inordinate love of luxury displayed by its inhabitants, whence a voluptuary obtained the name of a "Sybarite." It was destroyed by the people of Crotona, who turned the waters of the Crathis upon the town. Its site is now occupied by a pestilential swamp.

21 A famous Greek city founded on the territory of the former Ionian colony of Siris. The foundations of it may still be seen, it is supposed, near a spot called Policoro, three miles from the sea. The rivers are now called the Sinno and the Agri.

22 The modern Salandra or Salandrella, and the Basiento.

23 So called from its lying between the two seas. It was once a celebrated Greek city, but was in ruins in the time of Pausanias. The place called Torre di Mare now occupies its site.

24 The site of Aprustum is supposed to be marked by the village of Argusto, near Chiaravalle, about five miles from the Gulf of Squillace. Atina was situate in the valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. The ruins of Atina, which are very extensive, are to be seen near the village of Atena. Livy and Acron speak of Bantia as in Apulia, and not in Lucania. An ancient abbey, Santa Maria di Vanze, still marks its site.

25 The ruins of Eburi are supposed to be those between the modern Eboli and the right bank of the Silarus. The remains of Grumentum, a place of some importance, are still to be seen on the river Agri, half a mile from the modern Saponara. Potenza occupies the site of ancient Potentia.

26 The Sontini were probably situate on the river Sontia, now the Sanza, near Policastro. The Sirini probably had their name from the river Siris.

27 Volcentum was situate near the Silarus, probably on the spot now called Bulcino or Bucino. The site of Numistro appears to be unknown.

28 In his work "De Originibus."

29 Livy, B. viii., and Justin mention how that Alexander I. (in the year B.C. 326) was obliged to engage under unfavourable circumstances near Pandosia, on the Acheron, and fell as he was crossing the river; thus accomplishing a prophecy of Dodona which had warned him to beware of Pandosia and the Acheron. He was uncle to Alexander the Great, being the brother of Olympias. The site of Pandosia is supposed to have been the modern Castro Franco.

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