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To begin then with the river Varus; we have the town of Nicæa2, founded by the Massilians, the river Paulo3, the Alps and the Alpine tribes, distinguished by various names4, but more especially the Capillati5, Cemenelio6, a town of the state of the Vediantii, the port of Hercules Monæcus7, and the Ligurian coast. The more celebrated of the Ligurian tribes beyond the Alps are the Salluvii, the Deciates, and the Oxubii8; on this side of the Alps, the Veneni9, and the Vagienni, who are derived from the Caturiges10, the Statielli11, the Bimbelli12, the Magelli, the Euburiates, the Casmonates13, the Veleiates14, and the peoples whose towns we shall describe as lying near the adjoining coast. The river Rutuba15, the town of Albium Intemelium16, the river Merula17, the town of Albium Ingaunum18, the port of Vadum Sabatiorum19, the river Porcifera20, the town of Genua, the river Feritor21, the Portus Delphini22, Tigullia23, Tegesta24 of the Tigullii, and the river Macra25, which is the boundary of Liguria.

Extending behind all the before-mentioned places are the Apennines, the most considerable of all the mountains of Italy, the chain of which extends unbroken from the Alps26 to the Sicilian sea. On the other side of the Apennines, towards the Padus27, the richest river of Italy, the whole country is adorned with noble towns; Libarna28, the colony of Dertona29, Iria30, Barderate31, Industria32, Pollentia33, Carrea surnamed Potentia34, Foro Fulvî or Valentinum35, Augusta36 of the Vagienni, Alba Pompeia37, Asta38, and Aquæ Statiellorum39. This is the ninth region, according to the arrangement of Augustus. The coast of Liguria extends 211 miles40, between the rivers Varus and Macra.

1 Italy was divided by Augustus into eleven districts; the ninth of which nearly corresponded to the former republic of Genoa.

2 The modern Nizza of the Italians, or Nice of the French.

3 Now the Paglione.

4 Livy mentions four of these tribes, the Celelates, the Cerdiciates, the Apuani, and the Friniates.

5 Or "Long-haired." Lucan, B. i. 1. 442, 3, refers to this characteristic of the Alpine Ligurians:
Et nunc tonse Ligur, quondam per colla decora
Crinibus effusis toti prælate Comatæ.

6 It is probably the ruins of this place that are to be seen at the present day at Cimiez in the vicinity of Nice.

7 The modern Monaco.

8 These tribes have been already mentioned in c. 5, as belonging to the province of Gallia Narbonensis.

9 It is supposed that they dwelt near the present Vinadio in Piedmont.

10 It is supposed that they inhabited the vicinity of the present town of Chorges, between Embrun and Gap.

11 They probably dwelt near the modern town of Montserrat.

12 They probably dwelt near the modern Biela, eight leagues from Verceil in Piedmont.

13 Some writers place them near the modern city of Casale.

14 Their locality is supposed by some writers to be near the present Cortemiglia, five leagues from the town of Alba.

15 Now the Roya, flowing between very high banks.—Lucan, B. ii. 1. 422, speaks of the Rutuba as "Cavus," "flowing in deep cavities."

16 Probably the present Vintimiglia.

17 The modern Arozia.

18 The present town of Albenga.—Livy, B. xxix. c. 5, calls the inhabitants Albingauni.

19 Now called Vaï or Ve, and Savona.

20 The modern Bisagna, which waters Genua, the modern Genoa.

21 Now the Lavagna, which also washes Genoa.

22 "The Port of the Dolphin;" now Porto Fino.

23 Probably the ruins called those of Tregesa or Trigoso are those of Tigullia.

24 Now Sestri di Levante.

25 The modern Magra.

26 Of which they were considered as a chain, and called the Apennine Alps.

27 Now the Po.

28 According to D'Anville, now Castel Arqua.

29 Now Tortona. It was a city of importance, and there are considerable ruins still in existence.

30 The modern Voghera, upon the river Staffora.

31 Probably the present Verrua.

32 Called by the Ligurians Bodincomagus, by the Romans Industria. Its remains are to be found at Monteù di Po, a few miles below Chevasso, on the right bank of the river.

33 The modern Pollenza, a small town on the river Tenaro near Alba.

34 Its site has been placed at Chieri near Turin, and at Carrù on the Tanaro, a few miles south of Bene, which is perhaps the most probable.

35 The modern Valenza.

36 Placed by D'Anville at Vico near Mondovi, and by other writers at Carmagnole and Saluzzo: but Durandi has shown that the ruins still to be seen near Bene in Piedmont are those of Augusta Vagiennorum. Bene is supposed to be a corruption of Bagienna, the name of the town in the middle ages. The name of the Vagienni also probably survives in that of Viozenna, an obscure place in that vicinity.

37 Still called Alba; a town near the northern foot of the Apennines. It probably had its appellation from Cn. Pompeius Strabo, the father of Pompey the Great, who conferred many privileges on the Cisalpine Gauls. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Helvius Pertinax.

38 The modern Aste.

39 The modern Acqui, so called from its mineral springs. It is again mentioned by Pliny in B. XXXI. Numerous remains of the ancient town have been discovered.

40 Ansart observes that this measurement is nearly correct.

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