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1 Now called the Gulf of Melasso.
2 Now the Cape of Melasso.
3 The remains of the Temple of Didymæan Apollo at Branchidæ are still visible to those sailing along the coast. It was in the Milesian territory, and above the harbour Panormus. The name of the site was probably Didyma or Didymi, but the place was also called Branchidæ, from that being the name of a body of priests who had the care of the temple. We learn from Herodotus that Crœsus, king of Lydia, consulted this oracle, and made rich presents to the temple. The temple, of which only two columns are left, was of white marble.
4 The ruins of this important city are difficult to discover on account of the great changes made on the coast by the river Meander. They are usually supposed to be those at the poor village of Palatia on the south bank of the Mendereh; but Forbiger has shown that these are more probably the remains of Myus, and that those of Miletus are buried in a lake formed by the Mendereh at the foot of Mount Latmus.
5 See B. vii. c. 57. Josephus says that he lived very shortly before the Persian invasion of Greece.
6 Now called the Monte di Palatia.
7 Generally called "Heraclea upon Latmus," from its situation at the western foot of Mount Latmus. Ruins of this town still exist at the foot of that mountain on the borders of Lake Baffi.
8 Its ruins are now to be seen at Palatia. It was the smallest city of the Ionian Confederacy, and' was situate at the mouth of the Mæander, thirty stadia from its mouth.
9 Mannert says that its ruins are to be seen at a spot called by the Turks Sarasun-Kalesi.
10 One of the twelve Ionian cities, situate at the foot of Mount Mycale. It stood originally on the shore, but the change in the coast by the alluvial deposits of the Mæander left it some distance from the land. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of the philosopher Bias. Its ruins are to be seen at the spot called Samsun.
11 Now called Cape Santa Maria, or Samsun.
13 Between Ephesus and Neapolis. It belonged to the Samians who exchanged with the Ephesians for Neapolis, which lay nearer to their island. The modern Scala Nova occupies the site of one of them, it is uncertain which.
14 Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Inek-Bazar. It was situate on the river Lethæus, a tributary of the Mæander. It was famous for its temple of Artemis Leucophryene, the ruins of which still exist.
15 See B. ii. c. 91.
16 Now known as Ak-Hissar or the "White Castle." Strabo informs us that it was founded by Seleucus Nicator.
17 From the excellence of its horses.
18 Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Ayazaluk. It was the chief of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, and devoted to the worship of Artemis, whose temple here was deemed one of the wonders of the world. Nothing, except some traces of its foundations, is now to be seen of this stupendous building.
19 It was more generally said to have been founded by the Carians and the Leleges.
20 Now called the Kara-Su, or Black River, or Kuchuk-Meinder, or Little Mæander.
21 It has been observed that though Pliny seems to say that the Caÿster receives many streams, they must have had but a short course, and could only be so many channels by which the rivers descend from the mountain slopes that shut in the contracted basin of the river.
22 This lake or marsh seems to be the morass situate on the road from Smyrna to Ephesus, into which the Phyrites flows, and out of which it comes a considerable stream.
23 The Phyrites is a small river that is crossed on the road from Ephesus to Smyrna, and joins the Caÿster on the right bank ten or twelve miles above Ayazaluk, near the site of Ephesus.
24 See B. ii. c. 91. for further mention of this island.
25 Said to be derived from the Greek, meaning "The beautiful (stream) from Pion."
26 One of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia, founded by Andræmon. Notium was its port. There do not seem to be any remains of either of these places.
27 Called also the Hales or Ales, and noted for the coolness of its waters.
28 At Clarus, near Colophon. When Germanicus was on his way to the East, this oracle foretold to him his speedy death. Chandler is of opinion that he discovered the site of this place at Zillé, where he found a spring of water with marble steps to it, which he considers to have been the sacred fountain. Others again suggest that these ruins may be those of Notium.
29 Its site was probably near the modern Ekklesia, but no traces of the city itself are to be found.
30 Implying that in his time Notium was not in existence, whereas in reality Notium superseded Old Colophon, of which it was the port, and was sometimes known as New Colophon.
31 Now known as Cape Curco.
32 The site of this place is now known as Ritri, on the south side of a small peninsula, which projects into the bay of Erythræ. The ruins are considerable.
33 On the south side of the bay of Smyrna. In Strabo's time this city appears to have been removed from Chytrium, its original site. Chandler found traces of the city near Vourla, from which he came to the conclusion that the place was very small and inconsiderable.
34 According to Nicander, this was a mountain of the territory of Clazomenæ, almost surrounded by sea.
35 Or "the Horses," originally four islands close to the mainland, off Clazomenæ.
36 This was probably the same causeway that was observed by Chandler in the neighbourhood of Vourla, the site of ancient Clazomenæ.
37 See B. ii. c. 91, where he speaks of this place as being swallowed up in the earth.
38 From Clazomenæ.
39 Now called Izmir by the Turks, Smyrna by the western nations of Europe; the only one of the great cities on the western coast of Asia Minor that has survived to the present day. This place stood at the head of the cities that claimed to be the birth-place of Homer; and the poet was worshipped here for a hero or demi-god in a magnificent building called the Homereum. There are but few remains of the ancient city: the modern one is the greatest commercial city of the Levant.
40 Hardouin takes this to be the name of a town, but Ortelius and Pinetus seem to be more correct in thinking it to be the name of a mountain.
41 It does not appear that all these mountains have been identified. Cadmus is the Baba Dagh of the Turks.
42 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.
43 In the time of Strabo this tributary of the Hermus seems to have been known as the Phrygius.
45 The present Gulf of Smyrna.
46 Or the "Ants."
47 Probably so called from the whiteness of the promontory on which it was situate. It was built by Tachos, the Persian general, in B.C. 352, and remarkable as the scene of the battle between the Consul Licinius Crassus and Aristonicus in B.C. 131. The modern name of its site is Lefke.
48 Its ruins are to be seen at Karaja-Fokia or Old Fokia, south-west of Fouges or New Fokia. It was said to have been founded by Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon.
49 The people of Hyrcania, one of the twelve cities which were prostrated by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar; see B. ii. c. 86.
50 The people of Magnesia "ad Sipylum," or the city of Magnesia on the Sipylus. It was situate on the south bank of the Hermus, and is famous in history as the scene of the victory gained by the two Scipios over Antiochus the Great, which secured to the Romans the empire of the East, B.C. 190. This place also suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, but was still a place of importance in the fifth century.
51 The people, it is supposed, of a place called Hierocæsarea.
52 The people probably of Metropolis in Lydia, now Turbali, a city on the plain of the Caÿster, between Ephesus and Smyrna. Cilbis, perhaps the present Durgut, was their chief place.
53 A people dwelling in the upper valley of Caÿster.
54 Or Mysian Macedonians.
55 The people of Mastaura in Lydia. Its site is still known as Mastaura-Kalesi.
56 The people of Briula, the site of which is unknown.
57 The people of Hypæpæ, a small town of Lydia, on the southern slope of Mount Tmolus, forty-two miles from Ephesus. Under the Persian supremacy, the worship of Fire was introduced at this place. Arachne, the spinner, and competitor with Minerva, is represented by Ovid as dwelling at this place; he calls it on two occasions "the little Hypæpæ." Leake is of opinion that the ruins seen at Bereki belong to this place.
58 The people of Dios Hieron, or the "Temple of Jupiter." This was a small place in Ionia between Lebedus and Colophon. It has been suggested that it was on the banks of the Caÿster, but its site is uncertain.
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