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The first place in Troas is Hamaxitus1, then Cebrenia2, and then Troas3 itself, formerly called Antigonia, and now Alexandria, a Roman colony. We then come to the town of Nee4, the Scamander5, a navigable river, and the spot where in former times the town of Sigeum6 stood, upon a promontory. We next come to the Port of the Achæans7, into which the Xanthus8 flows after its union with the Simois9, and forms the Palæscamander10, which was formerly a lake. The other rivers, rendered famous by Homer, namely, the Rhesus, the Heptaporus, the Caresus, and the Rhodius, have left no vestiges of their existence. The Granicus11, taking a different route, flows into the Propontis12. The small city of Scamandria, however, still exists, and, at a distance of a mile and a half from its harbour, Ilium13, a place exempt from tribute14, the fountain-head of universal fame. Beyond the gulf are the shores of Rhœteum15, peopled by the towns of Rhœteum16, Dardanium17, and Arisbe18. There was also in former times a town of Achilleon19, founded near the tomb of Achilles by the people of Mitylene, and afterwards rebuilt by the Athenians, close to the spot where his fleet had been stationed near Sigeum. There was also the town of Æantion20, founded by the Rhodians upon the opposite point, near the tomb of Ajax, at a distance of thirty stadia from Sigeum, near the spot where his fleet was stationed. Above Æolis and part of Troas, in the interior, is the place called Teuthrania21, inhabited in ancient times by the Mysians. Here rises the river Caicus already mentioned. Teuthrania was a powerful nation in itself, even when the whole of Æolis was held by the Mysians. In it are the Pioniæ22, Andera23, Cale, Stabulum, Conisium, Teium, Balcea24, Tiare, Teuthranie, Sarnaca, Haliserne, Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum, Lygdamum, Apollonia, and Pergamum25, by far the most famous city in Asia, and through which the river Selinus runs; the Cetius, which rises in Mount Pindasus, flowing before it. Not far from it is Elæa, which we have mentioned26 as situate on the sea-shore. The jurisdiction of this district is called that of Pergamus; to it resort the Thyatireni27, the Mosyni, the Mygdones28, the Bregmeni, the Hierocometæ29, the Perpereni, the Tiareni, the Hierolophienses, the Hermocapelitæ, the Attalenses30, the Panteenses, the Apollonidienses, and some other states unknown to fame. The little town of Dardanum31 is distant from Rhœteum seventy stadia. Eighteen miles thence is the Promontory of Trapeza32, from which spot the Hellespont first commences its course.

Eratosthenes tells us that in Asia there have perished the nations of the Solymi33, the Leleges34, the Bebryces35, the Colycantii, and the Tripsedri. Isidorus adds to these the Arimi36, as also the Capretæ, settled on the spot where Apamea37 stands, which was founded by King Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia, and Armenia, and was at first called Damea38, from the fact that it had conquered nations most remarkable for their fierceness.

1 On the south-western coast of the Troad, fifty stadia south of Larissa. In the time of Strabo it had ceased to exist. No ruins of this place have been known to be discovered, but Prokesch is induced to think that the architectural remains to be seen near Cape Baba are those of Hamaxitus.

2 Or Cebrene or Cebren. It was separated from the territory of Scepsis by the river Menander. Leake supposes it to have occupied the higher region of Ida on the west, and that its site may have been at a place called Kushunlu Tepe, not far from Baramitsh.

3 Mentioned in Acts xvi. 8. It is now called Eski Stambul or Old Stambul. It was situate on the coast of Troas, opposite to the south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonus, under the name of Antigonia Troas, and peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. The ruins of this city are very extensive.

4 Or Nea, mentioned in B. ii. c. 97.

5 Now called the Mendereh-Chai.

6 On the north-west promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the Grecian fleet and camp during the Trojan war. The promontory is now called Yenisheri.

7 Now called Jeni-Scher, according to Ansart. It was at this spot that the Greeks landed in their expedition against Troy.

8 Usually identified with the Mendereh-Chai or Scamander.

9 The modern Gumbrek.

10 Or "ancient Scamander."

11 Now known as the Koja-Chai; memorable as the scene of the three great victories by which Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian empire, B.C. 334. Here also a victory was gained by Lucullus over Mithridates, B.C. 78.

12 Or Sea of Marmora.

13 It is not exactly known whether New Ilium was built on the same site as the Ilium or Troy which had been destroyed by the Greeks; but it has been considered improbable that the exploits mentioned in the Iliad should have happened in so short a space as that lying between the later Ilium and the coast. The site of New Ilium is generally considered to be the spot covered with ruins, now called Kissarlik, between the villages called Kum-kioi, Kalli-fath, and Tchiblak.

14 The Dictator Sylla showed especial favour to Ilium.

15 Now called Cape Intepeh or Barbieri.

16 The modern Paleo Castro probably occupies its site.

17 More generally called Dardanus, or Dardanum, said to have been built by Dardanus. It was situate about a mile south of the promontory Dardanis or Dardanium. Its exact site does not appear to be known: from it the modern Dardanelles are supposed to have derived their name.

18 Situate between Percote and Abydus, and founded by Scamandrius and Ascanius the son of Æneas. The village of Moussa is supposed to occupy its site. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the Hellespont.

19 Alexander the Great visited this place on his Asiatic expedition in B.C. 334, and placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles.

20 So called from Æas, the Greek name of Ajax.

21 Teuthrania was in the south-western corner of Mysia, between Temnus and the borders of Lydia, where in very early times Teuthras was said to have founded a Mysian kingdom, which was early subdued by the kings of Lydia: this part was also called Pergamene.

22 Called Pionitæ in the preceding Chapter.

23 A town in the Troad, the site of which is unknown.

24 A town on the Propontis, according to Stephanus. The sites of most of the places here mentioned are utterly unknown.

25 Also called Pergama or Pergamus. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Pergamo or Bergamo. It was the capital of the kingdom of Pergamus, and situate in the Tcuthranian district of Mysia, on the northern bank of the river Caïcus. Under its kings, its library almost equalled that of Alexandria, and the formation of it gave rise to the invention of parchment, as a writing material, which was thence called Charta Pergamena. This city was an early seat of Christianity, and is one of the seven churches of Asia to whom the Apocalyptic Epistles are addressed. Its ruins are still to be seen.

26 At the beginning of the preceding Chapter.

27 The people of Thyatira, mentioned in B. v. c. 31.

28 The people of Mygdonia, a district between Mount Olympus and the coast, in the east of Mysia and the west of Bithynia.

29 The people of the Holy Village." Hierocome is mentioned by Livy as situate beyond the river Mæander.

30 The people of Attalia, mentioned in C. 32.

31 Previously mentioned in the present Chapter.

32 Or "the Table." Now known as Capo de Janisseri.

33 Also called the Milyæ, probably of the Syro-Arabian race; they were said to have been the earliest inhabitants of Lycia.

34 The Leleges are now considered to have been a branch of the great Indo-Germanic race, who gradually became incorporated with the Hellenic race, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.

35 A nation belonging probably more to mythology than history. Strabo supposes them to have been of Thracian origin, and that their first place of settlement was Mysia.

36 By some supposed to have been a people of Phrygia.

37 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

38 From the Greek δαμάω "to subdue." Hardouin thinks that this appellation is intended to be given by Pliny to Asia in general, and not to the city of Apamea in particular, as imagined by Ortelius and others.

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  • Cross-references to this page (13):
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), CHELIDO´NIAE INSULAE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), HAMAXITUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), I´LIUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PARTHE´NIUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PE´RGAMUM or PERGAMUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PINDASUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHO´DIUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHOETEUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SCAMANDER
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SCAMA´NDRIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SIGE´UM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SIMOIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), THYMBRA
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