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1 Now called Brusa. It stood on the north side of Mount Olympus, fifteen Roman miles from Cius. According to most accounts, it was built by Prusias, king of Bithynia. It is most probable that Hannibal superintended the works, while staying as a refugee at the court of Prusias.
2 Now Lake Iznik.
3 Its ruins are to be seen at Iznik, on the east side of the lake of that name. Its site is supposed to have been originally occupied by the town of Attæa, and afterwards by a settlement of the Bottiæans, called Ancore, or Helicore, which was destroyed by the Mysians. On this spot, shortly after the death of Alexander the Great, Antigonus built a city which he named after himself, Antigonea; but Lysimachus soon afterwards changed the name into Nicæa, in honour of his wife. Under the kings of Bithynia, it was often the royal residence, and it long disputed with Nicomedia the rank of capital of Bithynia. The modern Iznik is only a poor village, with about 100 houses. Considerable ruins of the ancient city are still in existence. Littré seems to think that there are two Nicæas meant in these passages; but it would seem that the same place is alluded to in both lines. The only thing that seems to give countenance to Littré's supposition (in which he is supported by Hardouin) is, the expression "Et Prusa item altera."
4 It has been suggested, that this is only another name for the town of Cios, previously mentioned; but it is most probable that they were distinct places, and that this was originally called Cierus, and belonged to the territory of Heraclea, but was conquered by King Prusias, who named it after himself. It stood to the north-west of the other Prusa.
5 Or the "Golden Stream."
6 Suggested by Parisot to be the modern Cape Fagma.
8 Or Astacus, a colony originally from Megara and Athens. From Scylax it would appear that this city was also called Olbia. Its site is placed by some of the modern geographers at a spot called Ovaschik, and also Bashkele.
9 Called Gebiseh, according to Busbequis,—at least in his day. The modern Hereket, on the coast, has been suggested.
10 Its ruins now bear the name of Izmid, or Iznikmid, at the northeastern corner of the Sinus Astacenus, or Gulf of Izmid. It was the chief residence of the kings of Bithynia, and one of the most splendid cities in the world. Under the Romans it was made a colony, and was a favourite residence of Diocletian and Constantine the Great. Arrian the historian was born here.
11 Now Akrita. It is also called Akritas by Ptolemy.
12 The Straits, or Channel of Constantinople.
13 Its site is supposed to have been about two miles south of the modern Scutari, and it is said that the modern Greeks call it Chalkedon, and the Turks Kadi-Kioi. Its destruction was completed by the Turks, who used its materials for the construction of the mosques and other buildings of Constantinople.
14 So called, Hardouin thinks, from its being opposite to the Golden Horn, or promontory on which Byzantium was built.
15 Or Myrlea, mentioned above in C. 40. See p. 490.
16 Or Bithynium, lying above Tius. Its vicinity was a good feeding country for cattle, and noted for the excellence of its cheese, as mentioned by Pliny, B. xi. c. 42. Antinoüs, the favourite of the Emperor Adrian, was born here, as Pausanias informs us. Its site does not appear to be known.
17 These rivers do not appear to have been identified by the modern geographers.
18 The modern Scutari occupies its site. Dionysius of Byzantimn states, that it was called Chrysopolis, either because the Persians made it the place of deposit for the gold which they levied from the cities, or else from Chryses, a son of Agamemnon and Chryseis.
19 A king of the Bebrycians. For some further particulars relative to this place, see B. xvi. c. 89 of the present Book.
20 Situate on a promontory, which is represented by the modern Algiro, according to Hardouin and Parisot.
21 Other writers say that it was erected in honour of the Twelve Greater Divinities.
22 Called Phinopolis in most of the editions. It is very doubtful whether this passage ought not to be translated, "At a distance thence of eight miles and three-quarters is the first entrance to this strait, at the spot," &c. We have, however, adopted the rendering of Holland, Ajasson, and Littré.
23 Mentioned in C. 28 of the present Book.
24 In B. iv. c. 24.
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