previous next


The islands of the Propontis are, before Cyzicus, Elaphonnesus1, from whence comes the Cyzican marble; it is also known by the names of Neuris and Proconnesus. Next come Ophiussa2, Acanthus, Phœbe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, Halone3, with a city of that name, Delphacia, Polydora, and Artaceon, with its city. There is also, opposite to Nicomedia, Demonnesos4; and, beyond Heraclea, and opposite to Bithynia, the island of Thynias, by the barbarians called Bithynia; the island of Antiochia: and, at the mouth of the Rhyndacus, Besbicos5, eighteen miles in circumference; the islands also of Elæa, the two called Rhodussæ, and those of Erebinthus6, Megale, Chalcitis7, and Pityodes8.

Summary.—Towns and nations spoken of * * * *, Noted rivers * * * *. Famous mountains * * * *. Islands, 118 in number. People or towns no longer in existence * * * *. Remarkable events, narratives, and observations * * * *.

Roman Authors Quoted.—Agrippa9, Suetonius Paulinus10, M. Varro11, Varro Atacinus12, Cornelius Nepos13, Hyginus14. L. Vetus15, Mela16, Domitius Corbulo17, Licinius Mucianus18, Claudius Cæsar19, Arruntius20, Livius the Son21, Sebosus22, the Register of the Triumphs23.

foreign authors quoted.—King Juba24 Hecatæus25 Hellanicus26, Damastes27, Dicæarchus28, Bæton29, Timosthenes30, Philonides31, Zenagoras32, Astynomus33, Staphylus34, Aristoteles35, Aristocritus36, Dionysius37, Ephorus38, Eratosthenes39, Hipparchus40, Panætius41, Serapion42 of Antioch, Callimachus43, Agathocles44, Polybius45, Timæus46 the mathematician, Herodotus47, Myrsilus48, Alexander Polyhistor49, Metrodorus50, Posidonius51, who wrote the Periplus and the Periegesis, Sotades52, Periander53, Aristar- chus54 of Sicyon, Eudoxus55, Antigenes56, Callicrates57, Xenophon58 of Lampsacus, Diodorus59 of Syracuse, Hanno60, Himilco61, Nymphodorus62, Calliphanes63, Artemidorus64, Megasthenes65, Isidorus66, Cleobulus67, and Aristocreon68.


Page 1, line 9, The allusion, otherwise obscure, is to the fact that some friends of Catullus had filched a set of table napkins, which had been given to him by Veranius and Fabius, and substituted others in their place.

Page 13, line 2, for Roman figures, read other figures.

Page 20, line 7, for the God of nature; he also tends, down to and most excellent. read the God of nature. He supplies light to the universe, and dispels all darkness; He both conceals and reveals the other stars. It is He that regulates the seasons, and, in the course of nature, governs the year as it ever springs anew into birth; it is He that dispels the gloom of the heavens, and sheds his light upon the clouds of the human mind. He, too, lends his brightness to the other stars. He is most brilliant and most excellent.

Page 21, line 13, for elected, read erected.

Page 21, line 13, for good fortune, read evil fortune.

Page 23, line 18, for our scepticism concerning God is still increased, read our conjectures concerning God become more vague still.

Page 23, line 31, for and the existence of God becomes doubtful, read whereby the very existence of a God is shewn to be uncertain.

Page 33, line 4, for as she receives, read as receives.

Page 54, line 15, for the seventh of the circumference, read the seventh of the third of the circumference.

Page 59, line 36, for transeuntia, read trascurrentia.

Page 67, line 26, for circumstances, read influences.

Page 78, line 9, for higher winds, read higher waves.

Page 78, line 17, for the male winds are therefore regulated by the odd numbers, read hence it is that the odd numbers are generally looked upon as males.

Page 79, line 15, for of the cloud, read of the icy cloud.

Page 79, line 21, for sprinkling it with vinegar, read throwing vinegar against it.

Page 79, line 22, for this substance, read that liquid.

Page 80, line 13, for but not until, read and not after.

Page 80, line 14, for the former is diffused, down to impulse, read the the latter is diffused in the blast, the former is condensed by the violent impulse.

Page 80, line 17. for dash, read crash.

Page 81, line 21, for thunder-storms, read thunder-bolts.

Page 81, line 27, for their operation, read its operation.

Page 82, line 8, for thunder-storms, read thunder-bolts.

Page 85, line 2, for blown up, read blasted.

Page 88, line 15, for the east, read the west.

Page 89, line 11, for even a stone, read ever a stone.

Page 92, line 9, for how many things do we compel her to produce spontaneously, read how many things do we compel her to produce! How many things does she pour forth spontaneously!

Page 92, line 10, for odours and flowers read odours and flavours.

Page 93, line 16, for luxuries, read caprices.

1 Or "Deer Island."

2 Now Afzia, according to D'Anville.

3 There is still an island in the Sea of Marmora known by the name Alon, which is separated from the north-western extremity of the Peninsula of Cyzicus by a narrow channel.

4 Hesychius says, that there were two islands near Byzantium called by the common name of Demonnesi, but severally having the names of Chalcitis and Pityusa. Pliny, on the other hand, places Demonnesus opposite to Nicomedia, and at the same time mentions Chalcitis and Pityodes probably the same as Pityusa) as distinct places. D'Anville calls Demonnesus "The Isle of Princes."

5 The position assigned to this island by Pliny and Strabo corresponds with that of Kalolimno, a small island ten miles north of the mouth of the Rhyndacus.

6 Now called Prota, according to Parisot.

7 So called from its copper-mines; now called Khalki, or Karki.

8 Now called Prinkipo, east of Khalki.

9 See end of B. iii.

10 A celebrated Roman general, who was successively governor of Numidia and Britain, where he defeated Queen Boadicea. He was a supporter of the Emperor Otho, but afterwards obtained a pardon from Vitellius on the plea that he had betrayed Otho at the battle of Bedriacum, and so contributed to his defeat; which, however, was not the case.

11 See end of B. ii.

12 See end of B. iii.

13 See end of B. ii.

14 See end of B. iii.

15 See end of B. iii.

16 See end of B. iii.

17 Brother of Cæsonia, the wife of Caligula, and father of Domitia Longina, the wife of Domitian. He was the greatest general of his day, and conquered Tiridates, the powerful king of Parthia. He slew himself at Cenchreæ, A.D. 67, upon hearing that Nero had given orders for his execution.

18 See end of B. ii.

19 The Roman emperor, grandson of Livia, the wife of Augustus. As an author, the character in which he is here referred to, he occupied himself chiefly with history, and was encouraged in the pursuit by Livy the historian. At an early age he began to write a history from the death of the Dictator Cæsar, a plan which he afterwards abandoned, and began his work with the restoration of peace, after the battle of Actium. Of the earlier period he had written only four books, but the latter work he extended to forty-four. He also wrote memoirs of his own life, which Suetonius describes as written with more silliness than inelegance. A fourth work was a defence of Cicero against the attacks of Asinius Pollio. He also wrote histories of Carthage and of Etruria in Greek. All of his literary works have perished.

20 See end of B. iii.

21 Nothing whatever is known of this son of T. Livius, the great Roman historian. It is not improbable that the transcribers have committed an error in inserting the word filio, and that the historian himself is the person meant.

22 See end of B. ii.

23 Acta Triumphorum" probably mean the registers kept in the Capitol, in which were inscribed the names of those who were honoured with triumphs, and the decrees of the senate or the people in their favour. This register must not be confounded with the "Tabulæ Consulares."

24 Juba II., king of Mauritania. After the defeat of his father at Thapsus, he was carried a prisoner to Rome, though quite a child, and compelled to grace the conqueror's triumph. Augustus Cæsar afterwards restored to him his kingdom, and gave him in marriage Cleopatra, or Selene, the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. To his literary pursuits he is chiefly indebted for his reputation. His works are continually quoted by Pliny, who regards his authority with the utmost deference. Among his numerous works he seems to have written a History of Africa, Assyria, Arabia, and Rome; as also Treatises on the Stage, Music, Grammar, and Painting.

25 Of Miletus. See end of B. iv.

26 See end of B. iv.

27 See end of B. iv.

28 See end of B. ii.

29 He was employed by Alexander the Great in measuring distances in his marches. He wrote a work upon this subject, entitled, "Distances of the Marches of Alexander."

30 See end of B. iv.

31 See end of B. iv.

32 See end of B. iv.

33 See end of B. iv.

34 See end of B. iv.

35 See end of B. ii.

36 See end of B. iv.

37 Of Chalcis. See end of B. iv.

38 See end of B. iv.

39 See end of B. ii.

40 See end of B. ii.

41 Of Rhodes, the friend of P. Scipio Æmilianus and Lælius. He was the head of the Stoic School at Athens, where he died. His principal work was a Treatise on Moral Duties, which served as a model for Cicero in the composition of his work, "De Officiis." He also wrote a work on the philosophical sects.

42 See end of B. ii.

43 See end of B. iv.

44 See end of B. iv.

45 See end of B. iv.

46 See end of B. ii.

47 See end of B. ii.

48 See end of B. iv.

49 See end of B. iii.

50 See end of B. iii.

51 See end of B. ii.

52 There are four literary persons mentioned of this name. 1. An Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy. 2. A native of Maronæa, in Thrace, or else of Crete, who wrote lascivious and abusive verses, and was at last put to death by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was the inventor of the Sotadean verse, or Ionic a Majore, Tetrameter Brachycatalectic. 3. An Athenian Philosopher, who wrote a book on mysteries. 4. A Byzantine philosopher, of whom nothing whatever is known.

53 There were two writers of this name, before the time of Pliny. 1. Periander of Corinth, one of the Seven Wise Men, who wrote a didactic poem, containing moral and political precepts, in 2000 lines; and, 2. a physician and bad poet, contemporary with Archidamas, the son of Agesilaüs. It is uncertain to which Pliny here refers.

54 Probably a writer on geography. Nothing appears to be known of him.

55 Of Cyzicus, see end of B. ii.; of Cnidos, see end of B. iv.

56 A Greek historian, who appears, from Plutarch, to have written a history of the expeditions of Alexander the Great.

57 See end of B. iii.

58 See end of B. iii.

59 See end of B. iii.

60 The author of the Periplus, or voyage which he performed round a part of Libya, of which we have a Greek translation from the Punic original. His age is not known, but Pliny states (B. ii. c. 67, and B. v. c. 1) that the voyage was undertaken in the most flourishing days of Carthage. It has been considered on the whole, that he may be probably identified with Hanno, the son or the father of Hamilcar, who was slain at Himera, B.C. 480.

61 Mentioned also by Pliny, B. ii. c. 67, as having conducted a voyage of discovery from Gades towards the north, along the western shores of Europe, at the same time that Hanno proceeded on his voyage along the western coast of Africa. He is repeatedly quoted by Festus Avienus, in his geographical poem called Ora Maritima. His voyage is said to have lasted four months, but it is impossible to judge how far it extended.

62 See end of B. iii.

63 See end of B. iii.

64 See end of B. ii.

65 A Greek geographer, and friend of Seleucus Nicator, by whom he was sent on an embassy to Sandrocottus, king of the Prasii, whose capital was Palibothra, a town probably in the vicinity of the present Patna. Whether he had accompanied Alexander on his invasion of India is quite uncertain. He wrote a work on India in four books, to which the subsequent Greek writers were chiefly indebted for their accounts of India. Arrian speaks highly of him as a writer, but Strabo impeaches his veracity; and we find Pliny hinting the same in B. vi. c. 21. Of his work only a few fragments survive.

66 See end of B. ii.

67 See end of B. iv.

68 There was a philosopher of this name, a nephew of Chrysippus, and his pupil; but it is not known whether he is the person referred to, in C. 10, either as having written a work on universal geography, or on that of Egypt.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
67 AD (1)
480 BC (1)
hide References (7 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (4):
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), HALO´NE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PITYO´DES
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PROCONNE´SUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHODUSSAE
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (3):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: