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1 Hence the proverbial expression applied to a person who is suddenly silent upon the entrance of another; "Lupus est tibi visus."
2 Cuvier says, that the wolves of Africa are of the ordinary size, and conjectures that this remark probably applies to the chakale, or "Canis aureus" of Linnæus, which is of the colour of the wolf, and the size of the fox, and is common throughout all Africa.—B.
3 The opinion that men were converted into wolves by enchantment, or a preternatural agency, was at one time so generally received, as to have led to judicial processes, and the condemnation of the supposed criminal. —B. To the relator of the above story that men lose their voice on seeing a wolf, Scaliger wishes as many blows as at different times he had seen a wolf without losing his voice.
4 This literally means "changing the skin;" it was applied by some ancient medical writers to a peculiar form of insanity, where the patient conceives himself changed into a wolf, and named λυκανθρώπια, "lycanthropy." The word appears to have been in common use among the Romans, and to have been applied by them to any one who had undergone a remarkable change in his character and habits; in this sense it is used by Plautus, Amphitryon, Prol. 1. 123, and Bacchides, A. iv. sc. 4, 1. 12.—B.
5 It is not known who is here referred to; it is not probable that it is Fabius Pictor, the Roman historian.—B.
6 It is rather curious to find Pliny censuring others for credulity; indeed he loses no opportunity of a hit at the Greeks, to whom, after all, he is greatly indebted. See Introduction to vol. i. p. 17.
7 An account of the victories gained at the Olympic games.—B.
8 It has been conjectured, that the epithet, "Lycæan," αύκαιος, was given to Jupiter by the Arcadians, for this supposed conversion of men into wolves, which was conceived to be effected by divine interposition.—B.
9 It does not appear what is the foundation of this opinion; of course, it is without truth.—B.
10 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. vi. c. 35, says that they couple once only in the year. Ælian, Anim. Nat. B. iv. c. 4, says that their bringing forth continues twelve days.—B.
11 See c. 28 of the present Book. He alludes probably to the lynx.
12 It is not easy to say whence this opinion was derived; the general character of the wolf is that of quickness and watchfulness, rather than stupidity.—B. But it would appear that it is the lynx that is alluded to.
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