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1 The contents of this Chapter appear to be principally from Varro, B. ii. cc. 1, 2, and Columella, B. vii. cc. 2, 3, 4.—B.
2 This account is probably from Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. v. c. 14; B. vi. c. 19; and B. ix. c. 3, where we have various particulars respecting the production and mode of life of the sheep.—B.
3 13th May.
4 23rd July.
5 Varro, ubi supra, gives a somewhat different account: "Those lambs are called 'cordi,' which are born after their time, and have remained in the womb, called χορίον from which they take that name."—B.
6 The expression "senecta melior," here employed, is limited by Colu- mella, ubi supra, to the third year.—B.
7 Columella, B. vii. c. 8, remarks, "When deprived of his horns he knows himself to be disarmed, as it were, and is not so ready to quarrel and is less vehement in his passion."
8 Columella, B. vii. c. 23, refers to this practice; he informs us, B. vi, c. 28, that it is practised with respect to the horse. It is also referred to by Aristotle, De Gen. Anim. B. iv. c. 1.—B.
9 For this we have the authority of Aristotle, ubi supra, and of Columella, ubi supra, who quotes from Virgil in support of it, Geor. B. iii. 1. 387, et seq.—B. "Although the-ram be white himself, if there is a black tongue beneath the palate, reject him, that he may not tinge the fleece of the young with black spots."
10 Varro, B. ii. c. 2, remarks, "While the coupling is taking place, you must use the same water; for if it is changed, it will render the wool spotted, and injure the womb."
11 "Tectæ." The context shows that this means covered with skins or a woollen girth, probably on account of their delicate nature, while the common sheep of husbandry, or the "colonic" sheep, were able to endure the rigour of the weather without any such protection.
12 The words are tectun and colonicum; Columella, B. vii. c. 4, uses the terms molle and hirsutum, and Varro, B. ii. c. 2, pellitum and hirtum. The first obtained its name from its being covered with skins, to protect its delicate fleece. The colonic is so called, from "colonus," a "husbandman," this kind being so common as to be found in any village; whereas the tectæ were rare.
13 We have some account of the Arabian sheep in Ælian, Anim. Nat. B. x. c. 4.—B. Columella says, that the wool which was brought over to make these coverings, was only to be obtained at a very great price.
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