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1 We have an account of the generation of the goat in Aristotle. Hist. Anim. B. vi. c. 19. Ælian, Anim. Nat. B. iii. c. 38, says that the goats of Egypt sometimes produce five young ones at a birth.—B.
2 Columella, B. vii. c. 6, gives a somewhat different account; he says, "Before its sixth year it is old-so that when five years old, it is not suitable for coupling."—B.
3 According to Columella, ubi supra, "Because those with horns are usually troublesome, from their uncertainty of temper."—B.
4 There has been considerable difference of opinion respecting the reading of the original, whether the word "utiles," or "inutiles," was the one here employed. Hardouin conceives it was the latter, and endeavours to reconcile the sense with this reading; Lemaire, vol. iii. pp. 538, 539. But, notwithstanding his high authority, there is still great doubt on the matter.—B.
5 "Infractis," probably in contradistinction to erect ears. Columella, ubi supra, terms them, "flaccidis et prægrandibus auribus"—"flaccid ears, and very large."—B.
6 "Laciniæ;" Varro, B. ii. c. 3, describes them as "mammulas pensiles;" Columclla, ubi supra, calls them "verruculas;" he, however, assigns this appendage to the male goat.—B.
7 The word "mutilus" is employed, which Hardouin interprets, "having had the horns removed." But the same word is applied by Columella, B. vii. c. 6, to an animal naturally without horns.—B.
8 On this reference to Archelaus, Dalechamps remarks that he is incorrect; but refers to Varro, ubi supra, who ascribes this opinion to Archelaus; Lemaire, vol. iii. p. 540.—B.
9 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. i. c. 9, refers to this opinion, as being erroneous; Ælian, Hist. Anim. B. i. c. 53, supposes that they breathe both through the nose and the ears.—B.
10 Varro, ubi supra, remarks, "that no one in his senses speaks of a goat in health; for they are never without fever."
11 Meaning those who cannot see at night, who have a weak sight, and therefore require a strong light to distinguish objects. See also, as to the Nyctalopes, B. xxviii. c. 47. The same remedy, the liver of the goat, is recommended for its cure.—B. See also B. xxviii. c. 11.
12 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. viii. c. 28, says that the inhabitants of Cilicia shear the goats in the same manner as the sheep.—B.
13 This is mentioned by Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. ix. c. 3.—B.
15 According to Hardouin, the herb referred to is the "erngium;" prob- ably the "eringo:" he cites various authorities in support of his opinion.—B.
16 This is repeated in B. xvii. c. 24.—B.
17 Varro, B. i. c. 2, says: "Hence it is that they sacrificed no goats to Minerva, on account of the olive;" he then explains why the circumstance of the goat injuring the olive-tree was a reason for not offering it in sacrifice to Minerva, the patroness of this tree. Ovid, on the other hand, in the Fasti, B. i. 1. 360, says that the goat was sacrificed to Bacchus, because it gnawed the vine.
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