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1153. The article has the power to make substantival any word or words to which it is prefixed.

a. Adjectives: σοφός the wise man, τὸ δίκαιον justice.

b. Participles (with indefinite force): βουλόμενος whoever wills, the first that offers. Cp. 1124.

N. 1.—Such participial nouns appear in active, middle, and passive forms, and admit the distinctions of tense: ““οἱ ἐθελήσοντες μένεινthose who shall be willing to remainX. H. 7.5.24.

N. 2.—Thucydides often substantivizes the neuter participle to form abstract expressions: τῆς πόλεως τὸ τι_μώμενον the dignity of the State 2. 63. Such participial nouns denote an action regulated by time and circumstance. Contrast τὸ δεδιός fear (in actual operation) 1. 36 with τὸ δέος (simply fear in the abstract).

c. Preposition and case: ““οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτωνthose in power, the governmentD. 18.247, ““οἱ ἐν τῇ ἡλικίᾳthose in the prime of lifeT. 6.24.

d. With the genitive, forming a noun-phrase (1299): ““τὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶνthe condition of the soldiersX. A. 3.1.20, ““τὰ τῆς ὀργῆςthe outbursts of wrathT. 2.60.

e. Adverbs: ““οἵ τ᾽ ἔνδον συνελαμβάνοντο καὶ οἱ ἐκτὸς κατεκόπησανthose who were inside were arrested and those outside were cut downX. A. 2.5.32. Similarly οἱ τότε the men of that time, οἱ ἐκεῖ the dead, οἱ πάλαι the ancients.

N.—An adverb preceded by the article may be used like an adjective: ““ ὀρθῶς κυβερνήτηςthe good pilotP. R. 341c. The article is rarely omitted.

f. Infinitives: ““καλοῦσί γε ἀκολασία_ν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἡδονῶν ἄρχεσθαιthey call intemperance being ruled by one's pleasuresP. Ph. 68e.

g. Any single word or clause: τὸ ὑ_μεῖς ὅταν λέγω, τὴν πόλιν λέγω when I say You, I mean the State D. 18.88, ὑπερβὰ_ς τὸ δίκα_ς ὑπεχέτω τοῦ φόνου omitting (the words) ‘let him submit to judgment for the murderD. 23.220.

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.4.2
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