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1695. πρός (Hom. also προτί), at, by (fronting). Of like meaning, but of different origin, is Hom. ποτί.

1. πρός with the Genitive

a. Local (not common in prose): ““τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέρα_ς τεῖχοςthe wall facing the westX. H. 4.4.18, ““τὰ ὑποζύγια ἔχοντες πρὸς τοῦ ποταμοῦhaving the pack-animals on the side toward the riverX. A. 2.2.4.

b. Other relations: Descent: ““πρὸς πατρόςon the father's sideAes. 3.169. Characteristic: ““οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸς τοῦ Κύ_ρου τρόπουfor it was not the way of CyrusX. A. 1.2.11. Point of view of a person: πρὸς ἀνθρώπων αἰσχρός base in the eyes of men 2. 5. 20. Agent as the source, with passive verbs (instead of ὑπό): ὁμολογεῖται πρὸς πάντων it is agreed by all 1. 9. 20; to the advantage of; ““σπονδὰ_ς ποιησάμενος πρὸς Θηβαίων μᾶλλον πρὸς ἑαυτ ῶνmaking a truce more to the advantage of the Thebans than of his own partyX. H. 7.1.17; in oaths and entreaties: ““πρὸς θεῶνby the godsX. H. 2.4.21.

2. πρός with the Dative

In a local sense, denoting proximity (generally, in prose, of towns or buildings, not of persons): ““πρὸς τῇ πόλει τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαιto fight near the cityT. 6.49; sometimes like ἐν, as ““πρὸς ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς ἀνατεθῆναιto be dedicated in the common shrinesT. 3.57. Occupation: ““ἦν ὅλος πρὸς τῷ λήμματιhe was wholly intent upon his gainD. 19.127. In addition to: ““πρὸς αὐτοῖςbesides theseT. 7.57. In the presence of: ““πρὸς τῷ διαιτητῆ λέγεινto speak before the arbitratorD. 39.22.

3. πρός with the Accusative

a. Local (direction toward or to, strictly fronting, facing): ““ὑ_μᾶς ἄξομεν πρὸς αὐτούςwe will lead you to themX. A. 7.6.6, πρὸς νότον (toward the) south T. 3.6, ““ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίουςto go against the enemyX. A. 2.6.10.

b. Temporal (rare): ““πρὸς ἡμέρα_νtoward daybreakX. H. 2.4.6.

c. Other relations: friendly or hostile relation: ““πρὸς ἐμὲ λέγετεspeak to meX. C. 6.4.19, ““φιλία_ πρὸς ὑ_μᾶςfriendship with youI. 5.32, ““ἔχθρα_ πρὸς τοὺς Ἀργείουςenmity to the ArgivesT. 2.68, but πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἔχθρα_ our enmity 6. 80, ἀπέχθεια πρὸς τοὺς Θηβαίους our enmity to the Thebans and the enmity of the Thebans to us D. 18.36. With words of hating, accusing, and their opposites, πρός is used either of the subject or of the object or of both parties involved. With words denoting warfare πρός indicates a double relation, and the context must determine which party is the aggressor or assailant: ““ναυμαχία_ Κορινθίων πρὸς Κερκυ_ραίουςa sea-fight between the Corinthians and the CorcyreansT. 1.13 (here καί often suffices, as Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Ἠλείων πόλεμος X. H. 3.2.31). Relation in general: ““οὐδὲν αὐτῷ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐστίνhe has nothing to do with the cityD. 21.44, πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐσεβῶς ἔχειν to be pious toward the gods Lyc. 15. Purpose: πρὸς τί; to what end? X. C. 6.3.20, ““πρὸς χάριν λέγεινto speak in order to court favourD. 4.51; with a view to (often nearly = διά): ““πρὸς ταῦτα βουλεύεσθε εὖwherefore be well advisedT. 4.87, πρὸς τὰ παρόντα in consequence of the present circumstances 6. 41. Conformity: ““πρὸς τὴν ἀξία_νaccording to meritX. C. 8.4.29. Standard of judgment: ““οὐδὲ πρὸς ἀργύριον τὴν εὐδαιμονία_ν ἔκρι_νονnor did they estimate happiness by the money-standardI. 4.76, χώρα_ ὡς πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολι_τῶν ἐλαχίστη a territory very small in proportion to the number of its citizens 4. 107; and hence of comparison: ““οί φαυλότεροι τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τοὺς ξυνετωτέρους . . . ἄμεινον οἰκοῦσι τὰ_ς πόλειςthe simpler class of men, in comparison with the more astute, manage their public affairs betterT. 3.37. Exchange: ““ἡδονὰ_ς πρὸς ἡδονὰ_ς καταλλάττεσθαιto exchange pleasures for pleasuresP. Ph. 69a.

4. πρός in Composition

To, toward (προσελαύνειν drive to, προστρέπειν turn toward), in addition (προσλαμβάνειν take in addition), against (προσκρούειν strike against, be angry with). Often in the general sense of additionally, qualifying the whole sentence rather than the verb.

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.3.2
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