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1945. The perfect denotes a completed action the effects of which still continue in the present: τὰ οἰκήματα ᾠκοδόμηται the rooms have been constructed (their construction is finished) X. O. 9.2, τὰ_ς πόλεις αὐτῶν παρῄρηται he has taken away (and still holds) their cities D. 9.26, ὑπείληφα I have formed (hold) the opinion 18. 123, βεβούλευμαι I have (am) resolved S. El. 947, τί βουλεύεσθον ποιεῖν; οὐδ<*>ν, ἔφη Χαρμίδης, ἀλλὰ βεβουλεύμεθα what are you conspiring to do? Nothing, said Charmides; we have already conspired P. Charm. 176c.

a. The effects of a completed action are seen in the resulting present state. The state may be that of the subject or of the object: ““ἐφοβήθην, καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν τεθορύβημαιI was struck with fear, and even at the present moment am still in a state of agitationAes. 2.4, οἱ πολέμιοι τὰ_ς σπονδὰ_ς λελύκα_σιν the enemy have broken the truce (which is now broken) X. A. 3.2.10.

hide References (2 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (2):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.pos=2.2
    • Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax, Verbs: Tense
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