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2240. Causal clauses are introduced by ὅτι, διότι, διόπερ because, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὁπότε since, ὡς as, since, because. The negative is οὐ.

a. Also by poetic οὕνεκα ( = οὗ ἕνεκα) and ὁθούνεκα ( = ὅτου ἕνεκα) because, εὖτε since (poetic and Ionic; also temporal), and by ὅπου since (Hdt. 1.68, X. C. 8.4.31, I. 4.186). Homer has or τε because.

b. ὡς frequently denotes a reason imagined to be true by the principal subject and treated by him as a fact (2241). ὅτι often follows διὰ τοῦτο, διὰ τόδε, ἐκ τούτου, τούτῳ. διότι stands for διὰ τοῦτο, ὅτι. ὅτε and ὁπότε usually mean when (cp. cum); as causal conjunctions they are rare, as ὅτε τοίνυν τοῦθ᾽ οὕτως ἔχει since then this is the case, D. 1.1, ““χαλεπὰ . . . τὰ παρόντα ὁπότ᾽ ἀνδρῶν στρατηγῶν τοιούτων στερόμεθαthe present state of affairs is difficult since we are deprived of such generalsX. A. 3.2.2. Causal ὅτε, temporal ὅτε rarely, can begin a sentence. When they approach the meaning if, ὅτε and ὁπότε take μή. In Attic prose inscriptions ἐπεί is rare, διότι does not occur, and ὧν ἕνεκα is generally used for διόπερ.

hide References (2 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (2):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 3.2.4
    • Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax, Verbs: Mood
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