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2501. A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person; its case is determined by the construction of the clause in which it stands.

οὗτός ἐστιν ἀνὴρ δ̀ς ἦλθε this is the man who came, αὕτη ἐστὶν γυνὴ ἢν ἐζητοῦμεν this is the woman whom we were looking for, λαβὼν τοὺς ἱππέα_ς οἳ ἦσαν αὐτῷ taking the cavalry which he had, ἔχων τοὺς ὁπλἱ_τα_ς ὧν ἐστρατήγει having the hoplites which he commanded, τριῶν θυρῶν οὐσῶν, ἃ_ς ἔδει με διελθεῖν there being three doors through which I had to go.

a. If the main clause as a whole is regarded as the antecedent, the relative stands in the neuter singular with or without a demonstrative. Thus, ““πλεῖν ἐπὶ Σελι_νοῦντα πά_σῃ τῇ στρατιᾷ, ἐφ᾽ ὅπερ μάλιστα ἐπέμφθησανto sail for Selinus with all their force, for which purpose especially they had been sentT. 6.47.

b. The person of the verb in a relative clause, in which the relative pronoun is the subject, is regularly determined by the person of the antecedent pronoun expressed or implied. Thus, ““οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅστις ἄνθρωπος γεγένημαιI do not know what sort of a person I have becomeX. C. 1.4.12, καὶ οἰκία_ γε πολὺ μείζων ὑ_μετέρα_ τῆς ἐμῆς, οἵ γε οἰκίᾳ χρῆσθε γῇ τε καὶ οὐρανῷ and your habitation is much larger than mine since you occupy both heaven and earth as a habitation 5. 2. 15. The third person rarely follows a vocative (P 248).

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 3.2.3
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